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Chess And Training
As an independent activity, chess can be brought into a highly relevant and useful situation in the education of the individual. Regardless of his / her ability and intelligence, it is considered to be beneficial for the individual. Chess can play a functional role in the education of the individual without making any distinction between talent and intelligence with the positive effects they bring to the individual.
As it is known, mathematics is of great importance for both social sciences and science education and there is a serious relationship between mathematics and chess. working on this relationship and dealing with all aspects of this relationship and having an independent study in this field, Gik has reached important results (Gik, 1983).
Chess; It has been proved by scientific experiments that children's intelligence, imagination, shape and space knowledge, analysis and synthesis features, planning abilities, comprehension powers, verbal reasoning, memory, problem solving capacity, fast and logical thinking and decision making processes affect positively. As a result of this, it was ensured that 30 countries, especially Russia, USA, Venezuela, Bulgaria, Iceland, Canada and Spain, were taught in schools. In other countries, chess is supported by the relevant units of the state for its development.
The importance given by the US to chess education has attracted attention especially in the last two decades. In many states, chess is part of the school curriculum and there are numerous chess centers. Significant developments have been experienced especially in University chess. Students learn chess at many universities, including Virginia Tech, Texas Browsville, South Dakota, Sounth Carolina, Baltimore Country, Maryland, Oberline College, MIT, Harward, Colombia Buchnell, Tulane, Dallas Texas and Texas A&M Commerce. (//Www.tsf.org.tr/haberler/vmilliegitimders.htm)
In 1969, at the opening of the 40th World Chess Congress, Dr. Humbold University Dean of the Philosophy School in Berlin. Hans Klaus' Chess helps the human body develop methods of thinking. It is useful to learn and play chess since primary school years. Instead of the formal teaching process, learning by playing something is more enjoyable for every child. We can teach our children chess to improve their school life '. (//Www.tsf.org.tr/haberler/vmillieğitimders.htm)
Students playing chess Torrance creative thought tests and Watson Glaser critical thinking tests always showed high results.
Dr. Calvin F. Degermond, as a result of his long-term research on chess; chess, intelligence, aesthetics, sports, decision-making, determination and concentration, he said. Chess has been taught in Russian schools for almost 50 years. The contribution of children to problem solving and reasoning skills has been proven in many countries.
In 1973-1974, at that time in Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo), Dr. A total of 92 students aged 16-18 years participated in the study conducted by Albert Frank. At the end of the study, it was found out that the experimental group, who received chess education, was more successful in administrative ability, mathematics and verbal skills than the control group. (//Www.tsf.org.tr/haberler/vmilliegitimders.htm)
A total of 40 children aged 10 years participated in the studies carried out in Assenede Municipal School in Belgium between 1974-1976. At the end of the 5th and 6th grades, J. Piaget's comprehension development tests were applied to the students who were divided into two groups as experimental and control groups and the results of the statistics were in favor of the chess students. (//Www.tsf.org.tr/haberler/vmilliegitimders.htm)
He is also a faculty member of China University. In his experiments conducted by Yee Wang Fung on the students in the digital departments of the university, he found that the chess students had an average 15% increase in mathematics and science lessons. (//Www.tsf.org.tr/ha-berler/vmilliegitimders.htm)
In the studies carried out in the state of Pennsylvania, USA between 1979-1983, the experimental group that received chess training left all other control groups behind in their intellectual development programs. Watson-Glaser and Torrance test techniques were used in the researches. With the announcement of the research results, the practice of chess lessons was initiated in the pilot schools in the state of Pennsylvania. (//www.tsf.org. en / news / vmilliegitimders.htm)
Between 1979-1983, this time Dr. Robert Ferguson has prepared a federally funded project entitled m Developing Critical and Creative Thinking through Chess ES ESEA code IV-C. After 32 weeks of Watson-Glaser critical thinking tests, the chess group came in first place after the experiment which was attended by 7th, 8th and 9th grade students from Bradford region schools. (//Www.tsf.org.tr/haberler/vmilliegitimders.htm)
In 1979-1983, the study entitled Öğrenme Learning to Think Venezuela in Venezuela aimed to see whether chess increased the level of intelligence, 4266 girls and boys, all of whom were 2nd grade students, participated in this project. As a result of the research, it has been determined that chess methodology has been taught to increase the IQ of all students in small age groups. (//Www.tsf.org.tr/ha-berler/vmilliegitimders.htm)
What Chess Provides to Students
Chess, if taught to the student in a method, has positive benefits to all courses regardless. It also contributes to his personality and social life in many respects. In order to analyze these contributions, it is necessary to look from different angles. That is, chess does not reveal its depth as a game of reciprocal play of stones with separate functions on a board divided into 64 squares, considering a target within certain rules. Its depth; science, art and sports, the relationship with the history of civilization, historical personalities, intellectual dimension, individual and society lies in what they bring.
As a member of the society, we can say the following in general:
a) Make positive contributions to mental development
b) Increasing the reasoning power
c) Ability to analyze and synthesize
d) Encouraging creativity
e) Strategy development
f) Contribute to the development of photographic memory
g) Consciousness of never producing violence in the game process
h) Supporting imagination, shape and space knowledge, planning skills
i) Increasing problem solving capacities
j) Develop fast and logical thinking-decision-making processes
k) Understanding the cause and effect relationship
l) Teaching to be calm and cool
m) A gentlemanhood based on respect for the opponent
n) Risk taking
I. Turkey Gifted Congress Publication Series: 2
(Gifted Children Proceedings Book-Prof. Dr. Adnan Kulaksızoğlu, Assoc. Prof. Ahmet Emre Bilgili, Mustafa Ruhi Şiirin)
* Assoc. Dr. Marmara University
International Chess Arbiter