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The incidence of gynecological cancers is increasing among all cancer types. The most common is cervical cancer arising from the cervix. In the second place is the omet endometrial cancer bilinen which is known as uterine cancer. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death.
The cancers seen in the female reproductive organs are called gynecological cancers. The most common type of gynecological cancer in the world is cervical cancer, which is called cervical cancer among the cervix. This year, 500,000 new cervical cancer is expected to be diagnosed worldwide. Cervical cancer is the most common type of gynecological cancer in women after breast cancer worldwide. Its frequency varies from country to country and depending on the socioeconomic status of that country. In developed countries, the incidence of this cancer and deaths due to illness are decreasing. This is because the pap smear screening test can be diagnosed very early. In 2003, 12,200 new cases were diagnosed in the United States, and 4100 women died in the same year. In the United States, 8.7 women per 100,000 have been diagnosed with cervical cancer, while in Haiti it has increased to 94 women per 100,000.
The second place is “endometrial cancer kaynaklanan, which is known as uterine cancer among the womb's inner layer. This year, 361,000 new uterine cancer is expected to be diagnosed worldwide. The incidence of uterine cancer in modern societies is increasing. But the mortality rate is very low. Because in modern developed societies this disease can be caught early; Because of modern methods and well treated, mortality rates are falling. In 2003, 40,100 cases of uterine cancer were diagnosed in the United States and only 6800 women died of this disease.
Ovarian cancers originating from the ovaries, called “ovarian cancer ise, are the leading cause of death among gynecological cancers. 1.2 percent of women over 40 are diagnosed with ovarian cancer. In 2003, 25,400 cases were diagnosed in the USA and 14,500 women died from the same disease.
Vulva cancers, vaginal cancers and tube cancers are less common types of gynecological cancers. There is also a cancer group called gestational trophoblastic disease which occurs during pregnancy. Successful treatment response to this group of cancers, women's life does not threaten much.
Who is at Risk?
Assoc. Dr. Fatih Güçer stated that approximately 30-40 percent of the cancers in the female body are caused by female reproductive organs; The risk factors of these types of cancer that occur in different tissues are different from each other, he says. The most common in ASM, Assoc. Dr. Güçer, according to the reasons can be addressed in two main groups of uterine cancers, said: “The first group of women called hormone estrogen as a result of long-term exposure to cancer occurs. This type of cancer is more common in women who have or are about to enter menopause. Never giving birth and breastfeeding, early menstruation and late menopause, polycystic ovary syndrome, diabetes, obesity are risk factors. This group has a relatively better course of uterine cancers. The second group is unrelated to estrogen. Although a woman has never used estrogen in her life, she can get uterine cancer. ” Familial causes also play a role in the formation of some uterine cancer.
Dr.Fatih Gucer, an ASM Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist, stated that the cancer that causes the most deaths among gynecological cancers is ovarian cancer, and that this disease can be seen at any age; that it was detected in advanced stages since it did not give any preliminary symptoms; therefore, mortality rates were high; In about 75 percent of cases, the disease can be diagnosed after spreading into the abdomen, he says. One of the most important risk factors, the number of ovulation that expresses the woman. Güçer, “The more eggs a woman produces during her life, the greater the risk of developing ovarian cancer. The greater the number of out-of-life pregnancies a woman has, the lower the risk of developing ovarian cancer. Epithelial cancers, the most common type of ovarian cancers, originate from the tissue called 'epithelium' that covers the surface of the ovary. With each ovulation, the epithelium is divided and healed. Genetic defects are likely to occur during the epithelium's repeated deterioration. The fact that birth control pills reduce ovarian cancer by half is thought to be due to the ovarian stopping effect of these pills. ”
Familiar with ovarian cancer, Dr. Dr. Güçer “Ovarian cancer in the first-degree relative of the person, lifelong risk of developing ovarian cancer at 5 percent. If two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with ovarian cancer, this risk increases to much higher rates. Genetic factors were detected in some of the familial ovarian cancers. BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genes in breast cancer are also associated with ovarian cancer. Ovarian, breast, uterine and intestinal cancers that develop in the family especially at an early age point to genetic disorders. The mutation of the BRCA-1 and BRCA-2 genes is important in ovarian cancer as well as in breast cancer and tube cancers. ”
Another hypothesis about ovarian cancer is that there is a relationship between tubal fluid or intrauterine fluid and the development of cancer from the ovaries, regardless of the number of ovulation.
The only cancer that is known for certain is probably cervical cancer. Because the virus responsible for the formation of this cancer has been identified. Some types of this virus, called HPV (Human Papilloma Virus), are more dangerous than others. The possibility of this virus passing through sexual contact to women varies depending on whether the virus is low-risk or high-risk, how long it has been exposed, and whether the woman's immune system is strong. Having sexual intercourse at an early age, changing many partners, or being with a man who changes many partners, and smoking increases the risk of developing this cancer exponentially.
Menopause And Cancer
Assoc. Dr. Fatih Güçer pointed out that one of every ten post-menopausal bleeding has cervical cancer. “Bleeding after menopause should be taken very seriously. In addition, irregular bleeding problems in the transition to menopause should not be ignored, ”he says. However, cervical cancer, menopause is not seen after a disease that draws attention to the Powerer, “women under 40 years of uterine cancer cases, constitutes 5 percent of all uterine cancer. Therefore, when menstrual irregularity occurs in women under the age of 40, they should be checked for uterine cancer, albeit less likely. We are able to detect some of the cases of uterine cancer early in our routine controls before bleeding occurs. ”
Assoc. Dr. Güçer, abdominal swelling, feeling of fullness, increased waist thickness, indigestion, abdominal pain, abnormal bleeding, the beginning of the old skirts and pants to come to mind that the ovarian cancer should be brought to mind, stating that, "Early diagnosis of ovarian cancer is not necessarily an early gynecological examinations for routine needs. ” Assoc. Güçer, cervical cancer is the most common symptom of bleeding, stating that after sexual intercourse spotting style bleeding, menstruation or increase in duration, brown vaginal discharge is the first signs of this type of cancer, he stresses. Dr. Dr. Güçer, low back and groin pain, difficulty in urination or leg edema may be seen in advanced stages.
Fatih Gucer says that bleeding is usually a late symptom in gynecological cancers.
Dr. Gucer, transient pain attacks that occur on the right or left side of the groin, accompanied by a bloody, dirty liquid color from time to time in the tube cancer, he says. The most important symptoms of vulva cancer in the external genital area, a mass that was not used before, and the persistent itching, he says.
As with all cancers, early diagnosis of gynecological cancers is a life-saving element.
The Most Effective Method Surgery
Assoc. Asserting that surgery is the most effective method in the treatment of gynecological cancers. Dr. Fatih Power, says that it applies to all types of cancer except cancer called gestational trophoblastic disease: "But one of the most important problems in Turkey Failure to comply with the standard gynecological cancer surgery. There are world-class treatment strategies and surgical principles. However, we have also observed that radical surgery has not been performed sufficiently in some patients. To give an example, we can treat this patient by taking only the uterus of a patient with uterine cancer that has not yet spread to the walls of the uterus. But if it's spreading to the walls of the uterus, the diameter of this surgery needs to be increased. Taking into consideration a number of accepted standards in the world, we decide on the condition of the tumor. Depending on the condition of the tumor, other tissues and organs that are likely to spread the disease should be removed. Do not remove other tissues and organs, if you treat it as if it were a small tumor; if you choose to treat the rest with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, or a combination of both, the time begins to work against your patient. Your patient will also have to take such treatments, which he probably does not need at all after radical surgery. This will put an additional burden on both human health and the national economy. ”
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