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Dyslexia is a learning disorder that manifests itself with significant difficulties in the acquisition and use of listening, speaking, reading, writing, reasoning and mathematics skills. Children with dyslexia who start primary education cannot read, write and have difficulty in understanding mathematical operations since the mental development that can receive education is not yet completed. However, this does not indicate a problem with their intelligence level. It is also seen in children with very high intelligence levels. But sometimes the disease is unnoticed. Children with dyslexia may not only have low intelligence but also have special abilities. Important evidence for this is scientists and artists known to have dyslexia: Albert Eistein, Leonardo da Vinci, and Tom Crouse. Attention deficit disorder may also be observed in children with dyslexia. Therefore, these children should receive systematic attention training by a specialist. The first signs of dyslexia were obtained in 1896 by a British doctor, W. Pringle Morgan, and published in the British Medical Journal. Morgan stated in his article that a 14-year-old boy, named Percy, was always clever and intelligent, fast in games compared to his peers, and had nothing left of his friends, but could not read. During this period, dyslexia was thought to be related to the visual system.
Dyslexia is a learning disability that occurs in the acquisition of reading skills despite the lack of learning opportunities, mental retardation, brain disease, normal and adequate education, normal intelligence level, appropriate sociocultural environment. This difficulty may include a perceptual integration disorder in the central nervous system (such as difficulty in distinguishing words, difficulty in arranging words in the appropriate order in the sentence, linguistic difficulties in the form of phonetic-audiovisual integration) or visuomotor dysfunction.
Dyslexia is divided into two as congenital developmental and trauma-related dyslexia. Congenital dyslexia is divided into three types depending on the complications before, during and after delivery. Prenatal dyslexia, inadequate and unbalanced nutrition, infections during pregnancy and unconscious use of drugs can be effective. Dyslexia may occur due to hereditary factors.
The biggest problem with children with dyslexia is the fact that dyslexia can be diagnosed rather than the treatment of dyslexia. Because, like other learning disorders, dyslexia is an implicit disorder and cannot be understood at first glance. Therefore, it can be difficult to notice before the child starts school. Dyslexia is usually noticed during childhood, at the beginning of reading.
Developmental learning difficulties often manifest themselves in the early years of school, but bright-minded children can compensate for these difficulties and hide them until the age of 9-10. For this reason, dyslexia in bright children is realized later than normal children. Nevertheless, symptoms may begin to manifest itself earlier. Delay and difficulty in distinguishing right and left and learning the clock according to peers, having difficulty in recognizing money, or reversing numbers in places.
According to the DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition), the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, developmental learning disabilities are grouped into three subgroups. The first sub-group is called öğrenme learning disorders ve and includes reading disorder, mathematics disorder and writing disorder. The second sub-group includes developmental expressive language disorder, receptive and expressive mixed language disorder, phonological disorder (articulation disorder) and stuttering under the heading of communication disorders. The third subgroup; developmental motor coordination disorder under the title of motor skill disorder. The first group of reading and writing disorders (these are called dyslexia) are related to the processing of language function in visual (visual) modality; The second group of communication disorders (these are called developmental dysphasia), the auditory (auditory) modality is related to processing. In general, these two groups of disorders, namely developmental dyslexia and developmental dysphasia, are considered as two images of the same problem.
Dyslexia is also described as developmental reading disorder. The characteristics of children in accordance with this definition can be listed as follows; Children with dyslexia can confuse the concepts of right-left, top-bottom, before-after. They may have difficulty in distinguishing their right-left. In most, the hand-leg-eye dominance is confused or left-handed. They have difficulty distinguishing similar letters (such as b / d or p / b) and can use them interchangeably. They cannot separate similar sounds (such as f / v like b / m) and use them interchangeably. Word skips appear in the sentence while reading, or they can continue to read from different lines. They can read or write synonyms or words from the semantic category (such as carpet / rug, aunt / uncle, fork, spoon). They may skip some letters in the word (such as "pra" instead of "money"). They can change the order of precedence after letters (such as “sak” instead of “muscle”). Similarly, they can omit the syllables in the word. They can change the order of syllables. They can skip lines while reading. While writing, they cannot separate words between words. They can write in the so-called “mirror image;; that is, both letters and the whole word can be written from right to left by reversing it 180 degrees, this article looks like the text we know when held in the mirror. They may have difficulty using punctuation. They may find it difficult to grasp the general line of a text. They may have difficulty explaining what they read. Their attention is short-lived and easily cried. There are difficulties in concentration. Their social development is weak, they don't get along well with friends. Distance and depth perceptions are distorted. They have difficulty in distinguishing shape-ground. Visual and auditory perception and motor skills may be retarded. Their short-term memory (visual or auditory) is weak. Sometimes they can do math only from the mind, but they can't write. They cannot remember what they see or visualize them. They can confuse yesterday, today and tomorrow. They cannot distinguish the year, day and season. They forget the place of their books, they lose their belongings. They forget to do their homework. Parents are often warned about these issues and sometimes blame children for lying. Relationships with friends are often problematic. These specific features related to dyslexia, children with dyslexia do not show all of these features; they exhibit some of these symptoms depending on the type of dyslexia. The dyslexia problem may be accompanied by mathematics learning disability (dyscalculia) and other learning disabilities (such as writing problems-dysgraphy). In addition, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorders and depression may coexist with this condition.
Children diagnosed with dyslexia should be supported as much as possible during education. The problem is that the child is successful in the normal classroom environment by being supported with special education services in his / her field. At this stage, the task of the family should be to ensure that the child's self-confidence, shaken by the difficulty, is gained. The child should be convinced that this problem is not his fault and that he has strong areas.
● Information on dyslexia. www.disleksi.org
● Ertürk, Suna; Snowfall, Fetanet. Children with Learning Difficulties. Journal of Education in the Brightness of Science and Reason. Issue: 39. Year: 2003.
● Irmak, Olcay; The Yazgünoğl. Jasmine. Dyslexia (Learning Disorder). www.bilkent.edu.t is
● Korkmazlar, Ümran. Learning Disability (Dyslexia). www.okulweb.meb.gov.t is
● Oral-Korkmazlar, Ümran. Recognition of Learning Problems in Preschool Period. www.hiperaktivite.org
● Specific Learning Difficulty. Indigo Magazine. Issue: 23. Year: 2007
● Türkan Töney. Exactly What Is Dyslexia. Journal of Science and Technology. 2002.