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If the mother's blood type is RH negative and the father's positive, the blood mismatch should be closely monitored for a healthy completion of the pregnancy. We also about it Acıbadem Health Group Gynecology Specialist Dr. Contact Rıza directly We spoke with.
: What is a blood mismatch?
Professor Dr. Contact Rıza directly Blood incompatibility is a problem that is evaluated in the context of high-risk pregnancy. Your mother's blood group RH negative, your father'squinine positive occurs in cases where. The RH factor is an antigenic structure found in erythrocytes (red blood cells). If a pregnant woman whose blood type is RH-negative encounters RH-positive blood, she is sensitized to the absent RH antigen and forms antibodies. This event is called immunization. Thus, immunized blood incompatibility refers to the presence of antibodies to the RH antigen in the womb. Without precaution, it can cause significant problems in the womb, from death to neonatal jaundice.
: Which factors are effective in blood mismatch?
Professor Dr. Contact Rıza directly There are many factors that affect blood mismatch. Firstly, the RH negative pregnant woman should encounter RH positive blood. This is possible because his wife's blood type is RH. In fact, it is the child who receives the RH positive blood group from the father who caused the problem and who has RH positive in the womb. Very little amount of blood passes to the mother during childbirth, causing the mother to be sensitized. Sensitization (immunization) occurs primarily after birth. However, it can rarely occur after abortion, abortion and ectopic pregnancy.
: What are the health problems that can be caused?
Professor Dr. Contact Rıza directly Antibodies that are present in the mother against RH positive erythrocytes can easily pass through the placenta. These antibodies, which participate in the circulation of the fetus, cause the destruction of erythrocytes if the blood type of the fetus is RH positive. The main source of the problem for the fetus is the destruction of erythrocytes, ie anemia. Depending on the degree of anemia, problems arise in the fetus and newborn. The resulting picture forms a wide spectrum from the death of the child in the womb to the development of a mild jaundice in the newborn. The severity of the problems that may occur in the child is related to the degree of anemia.
: What are the methods used in the diagnosis?
Professor Dr. Contact Rıza directly In the case of a RH negative mother and a RH positive father, it is first necessary to determine whether the mother is immunized. This is possible by determining the presence of antibodies to Rh positive erythrocytes in the womb. For this reason, the Indirect Coms test is applied. If the indirect Coms test is positive, then the antibody is present. If the indirect Coms test is negative, the mother is not immunized. There is no risk for the current pregnancy and the precautions to be taken is to prevent the sensitization of the pregnant woman after birth. Anti-Rh-immunoglobulins (antibodies) are commercially available for this purpose. These drugs are popularly known as n needle of conflict ”. These drugs include antibodies against Rh (+) blood group. These antibodies are the same antibodies produced by Rh (-) mothers who had previously met Rh (+) blood. When these antibodies are injected into the mother through the hip, they pass into the mother's blood to find all Rh (+) antigen-bearing cells, and the maternal defense system breaks them down before they see them, thus preventing initial contact. If the Indirect Coms test is positive, there are antibodies in the mother's abdomen that can harm the fetus. In this case, the fetus is at risk. What needs to be done is to determine the degree of anemia in the fetus. For this purpose, the degree of anemia is tried to be determined by considering the results of previous pregnancies and evaluating the fetus by ultrasonography and doppler.
: What are the methods used in the treatment of blood incompatibility?
Professor Dr. Contact Rıza directly The degree of anemia in the fetus is determined after the diagnosis is made in the treatment of blood incompatibility. If the fetus is thought to have severe anemia, blood transfusion, which is the treatment of anemia, may be required. Blood is given to the umbilical cord of the unborn child by an ultrasound guided needle. This process is repeated at the required intervals and the child is delivered at the appropriate time. This method is a very effective and successful treatment method.