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Birth Control Pills (Oral Contraceptives)
Birth control pills (oral contraceptives) are contraceptive methods that use hormones to prevent pregnancy. The synthetic female hormones in the drugs change the natural hormone levels of women and prevent the release of eggs from the ovaries every month. There is less mucus secretion than the cervix, so that the sperm cannot easily enter the uterus. In addition, the intrauterine tissue becomes thinner, making it difficult for the fertilized egg to remain in the uterus. The most commonly used pills are “combined” pills. They contain two synthetic hormones; estrogen and progesterone. There are also pills containing only progesterone (mini-pill), but they are less effective.
How to use the pills
Combined pills are usually available in packs of 28 pills. There are also packages containing 21 pills. You and your doctor will decide which one is right for you. Your doctor will advise you to start taking the pill either on the first Sunday after your period or on the first day of your period according to your preference. If you use a package of 21 pills; 3 weeks, 1 pill a day will be taken, 7 days will be interrupted, a new package will be started again. If you are using a package of 28 pills; One pill will be taken every day for 4 weeks, then the second package will be started without a break. The last seven pills are not intended for birth control. Just to give you the habit of drinking medicine every day. It is important to try to take the pills at the same time every day. Your period will usually start after the last hormone-containing pill. Some antibiotics can affect the functioning of birth control pills in your body. Tell your doctor if you are taking antibiotics. You may need an additional contraceptive method when using antibiotics.
What happens if I forget to take the pills?
If you forget to take pills, you may have irregular menstruation and become pregnant. If you forget to take a pill, you should take the pill as soon as you remember it and take the next pill at the usual time. If you forget to take two pills in a row, take two pills a day for two days and then continue with one pill a day. If you forgot to take the pills for three or more days, discontinue the pills and take another contraception method until the next menstrual period. If you do not have your period on the day you expect, consult your doctor. If you have forgotten to take two or more pills and you have passed your period, you may have become pregnant. Discontinue your medication and use another contraception method until you are sure that you are not pregnant.
When can I start taking birth control pills after I have children?
If you are breastfeeding your baby, you should not take birth control pills until your breastfeeding is in order. It takes an average of 4-6 weeks after birth. It is then possible to use a low-dose pill or pills containing only progesterone. Talk to your doctor when you can start taking the pills. Breastfeeding is not an absolute prevention method, so another contraceptive method should be used until you start taking birth control pills. In this period, condoms or spermicides can be used.
What are the benefits?
The most important benefit is that it is an effective birth control method and does not interrupt your sex life. Birth control pills; reduces the risks of uterine and ovarian cancer, ovarian cysts, rheumatoid arthritis and external (tubal) pregnancy. At the same time, your menstruation is regular, lighter and painless. Generally, women who do not have a gynecological problem before starting contraceptive pills have no difficulty in getting pregnant after quitting the pills regardless of the duration of use. As long as there is no particular problem with the pills, there is no advantage to taking the pills. When you decide to conceive, you are advised to wait until at least two periods pass after you stop taking the pills.
What are the disadvantages?
A disadvantage of using birth control pills is that they should be taken every day.
You may experience the following problems while taking birth control pills:
* Irregular bleeding in the first few months after onset
* Nausea and vomiting
* Weight gain
* Swelling of the breasts
* Increased appetite
* Reduction or absence of quantity
* Increase in blood pressure
Women who smoke birth control pills, especially over the age of 35, have increased risk of serious problems such as heart disease and blood clotting. Heart disease can cause a heart attack. It can cause blood clotting, leg pain, swelling, or chest pain. Have your blood pressure checked 3 months after taking the pills. If you are taking birth control pills, you should not smoke. Birth control pills do not protect against sexually transmitted diseases such as AIDS. The only safe way to prevent AIDS is latex condoms.
When should I call the doctor?
* Leg pain or swelling
* Vision loss or double vision
* Irregular bleeding
* More than usual headaches
In these cases, you should call your doctor.
Intrauterine Device (IUD)
Intrauterine Device (IUD), also called spiral or ring, is an instrument placed in the uterus for birth control by a specialist. You can stay in the uterus for 1 to 5 years. It is usually made of plastic or metal with a rope at the end. Some IUDs contain copper or progesterone. IUD; It prevents pregnancy by changing the physical environment of the reproductive organs. These changes prevent the egg from fertilizing or settling into the uterus. Due to its association with pelvic infections, there has been controversy in IUD use. If you have had an intense menstrual bleeding, you should discuss the risks of using IUD with your doctor if you have a history of infection or ectopic pregnancy from any of the reproductive organs (ovaries, uterus, tubes).
How to use?
It is inserted into the uterus by a specialist physician. It is usually worn during menstrual period because the probability of pregnancy is very small and the cervix is slightly opened. It takes a few minutes to be installed. When worn, you may feel cramp-like pain. Local anesthesia can be applied to prevent discomfort during insertion. After several months of IUD insertion, check the rope frequently to ensure that the IUD is in the uterus. Also check the rope after each menstrual period. You can do this by inserting your finger into the vagina, feeling the rope near the cervix. As long as you feel the rope, the IUD is in its normal position and you are unlikely to become pregnant. If you feel hard plastic, the IUD is not in the right place. You should contact your doctor to change. In the first few months, IUD may have left without you noticing. Therefore, in the first months, check the IUD before each intercourse or use the withdrawal method to ensure. IUD can be used for 1 to 5 years. Generally, IUDs containing progesterone are replaced after 1 year. IUDs containing copper can be used for 5 years.
What are the benefits?
* 97% effective contraception method.
* Does not interrupt the relationship.
* It is changed every 1 - 5 years depending on the type.
What are the risks?
Some problems may be encountered when using IUD; some of them can be serious. The first two of the most common problems are:
* Increased menstruation and cramps, usually for several months
* Spotting bleeding between menstrual periods
* Increased risk of pelvic infection (PID) may cause infertility.
* IUD drop without realizing it can cause unexpected pregnancy.
* IUD can be buried in the uterine wall.
* Perforation of the uterus may damage internal organs and may cause internal bleeding.
* Increased risk of ectopic (tubal) and miscarriage if pregnancy occurs while using IUD
When should I call my doctor?
* If you can't feel the rope,
* Bad smelling vaginal discharge,
* Serious, unexpected abdominal pain, especially during intercourse
* Fever of unknown cause,
* Pregnancy can occur when IUD is present,
* You can request removal. In such cases, you should call your doctor.
The barrier used by the male is the birth control method. It is a disposable tube made of latex. It is inserted into the erect penis immediately before intercourse. At the end of the condom there is a small compartment where the semen is stored. A condom prevents sperm from passing through the uterus. Latex condoms also serve as barriers to sexually transmitted diseases. Male condoms are available in many different shapes, colors and features. Most are of similar height and suitable for most men. Some condoms are covered with a lubricating liquid that kills sperm.
How to use?
Use a new condom before each intercourse. It is attached to the erect penis. A small space is left at the tip where the semen will accumulate. It should cover the whole penis. The air inside is squeezed to prevent tearing during mold ejection. After ejaculation, while the penis is erect, the penis is carefully removed from the vagina. The condom is removed by holding the bottom of the condom to prevent the sperm from spreading. The used condom is discarded. Not used again. The use of latex condoms is a good option to prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
What are the benefits?
* It protects 90% pregnancy when not used with sperm killer foam or gel.
* Provides 97% protection with sperm killer foam or gel.
* Latex condoms protect against sexually transmitted diseases.
* Polyurethane is the only acceptable method that prevents sexual transmission of AIDS other than female condoms.
* Non-prescription pharmacies and grocery stores.
* Small, easy to carry, single use.
* No side effects.
What are the disadvantages?
* Drill or tear during intercourse. Sperm can flow into the vagina and cause pregnancy.
* Penis may be lost.
* In order to wear a condom, it is necessary to take a break. Still, wearing condoms can be a pleasure for two wives.
* Condom can reduce the feeling of the penis.
* If exposed to heat for a long time (such as carrying in the back pocket, wallet), it may weaken and puncture and sperm may flow into the vagina.
Bahçeci Clinic Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist Example: Halit Erden