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Childhood, when the awareness of danger has not yet been acquired, is the most frequent period of accidents. Maintaining the coolness of the parents in accidents ensures that the intervention is more healthy. Anadolu Health Center From the emergency room. Cenk Ersemiz, Describes the most common accidents that children face and what needs to be done.
- What kind of accidents do your children usually have?
The most common accidents in infancy, ie 0-6 months of life, are the falls from the bed. After this period, especially according to the mobility of infants and children, falls, swallowing foreign bodies and inserting foreign bodies into their natural openings, drinking chemicals / drugs, electric shocks, burning / cutting injuries in the kitchen and traffic accidents are more common.
- What are the first things families should do in these situations? In which cases should a doctor be consulted?
First, parents need to be calm. In case of falls, especially in cases of head trauma, the child's state of consciousness should be evaluated, vomiting should be monitored and a hospital should be consulted without any fuss in the first 2 hours. In case of drinking chemicals and drugs, first of all, the number of poison counseling centers which should be located in the home should be dialed and the information should be exchanged. It is especially important to obtain this information before attempting to induce vomiting and drink something. In foreign body swallowing, if the object is close to the mouth, it can be tried to be removed with light finger movement, but if foreign body is inserted into natural openings such as nose and ear, it should apply to a health institution without tampering and pushing the objects deeper. As rhythm disturbances may occur in electric shocks, it is useful to take the children to a hospital immediately. In case of non-chemical water, tea burns, the clothing immediately above the burned area should be gently removed and kept under water, except for a clean gauze, to the hospital for classification and intervention. The shape, location and depth of the bleeding should be determined thoroughly in stab wounds and superficial cuts should be dressed only, and children should not be worried about tetanus vaccine. In deep incisions, if bleeding does not stop by simple suppression methods, and accompanied by pulses in the form of arterial bleeding, and if there is intense bleeding, hospitalization should be made. Regardless of traffic accidents, it is necessary to go to the hospital even if the patient's condition is stable.
- What are the most risky accidents?
Traffic accidents (in which children refuse to wear a seat belt, especially in the time of adventurous play), falls, especially head injuries, electric shocks, chemical and drug abuse can be fatal.
- In such cases, what duties do families have?
Families should take precautions. It should be an example by wearing the seat belt themselves, and if possible, travel with the child. Precautions can be taken especially for the furniture with pointed corners, especially for the first time walking, rugs, carpets, such as children can be easily attached to the floor fixings should be preferred. It is necessary not to leave any substances to be mixed with water, such as bleach, and to keep the medicines under lock, where possible, inaccessible to children. Since kitchen and bathroom are the most dangerous places, precautions should be taken to prevent loss, fire and hot oil should not be kept on the stove and the child should be kept away and the blades should be kept in drawers out of reach.
- What should be taken into consideration when transporting injured children to the emergency room?
Vital signs should be thoroughly controlled, changes in the path should be observed and the doctor should be informed. If fractures are suspected in areas such as arms, legs and neck during falls, care should be taken not to move these areas at all. In case of bleeding, it may be necessary to apply pressure to the bleeding area with a clean cloth. If arterial hemorrhage is considered, it would be useful for someone who has knowledge about tourniquet application and bring it to the emergency department. In burns, patients can be wrapped with a clean cloth after washing. In any other case, such as electric shock, chemical poisoning, it is sufficient to ensure that the child's breathing is not interrupted and circulated first. For this reason, the biggest duty of the families is to have knowledge about first aid and to work out how to behave according to the scenarios in advance, considering that such accidents can be very frequent especially in houses and neighborhoods. 112 or emergency numbers, the number of the poison counseling center should be easily available and immediately accessible.
- What are the consequences if the family experiences panic?
The first aid is not to panic. If the environmental precautions are not taken correctly (if the child is not removed from the electricity source, chemical substance or fire), the quality and effectiveness of the help given to the child decreases if it is not clear whether he breathes and whether he has a heartbeat or not.
- Should an ambulance be expected in every accident?
It would be wise to expect to benefit from ambulance services or an organized civil defense system, especially in cases involving multiple traumas, traffic accidents, children who are likely to fall and suffer from neck trauma, in cases involving masses related to chemical and radiation.
It is very important to stay calm in each accident, assess the situation first, determine the child's current health status, then seek help at the necessary places and, if necessary, begin life support immediately after a short assessment. For example, in children who are likely to miss foreign bodies such as chickpeas and beads in the trachea, situations such as respiratory distress and bruising will occur quickly and if the family does not panic, they will be able to intervene more quickly. In infants it is important to lay on the knee, to hit the palm between the shoulder blades several times, to perform the classic Heimlich maneuver in older children (to go behind the patient and put a fist under the board of faith and press the palm of the other hand quickly). If this is not the case, giving mouth and mouth breathing support to the mouth, called heart massage and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (heart-lung resuscitation), also called breathing and heartbeat support movements should pass immediately. Quick removal of clothes in chemical burns, washing with plenty of water, washing with plenty of water in burns, applying protective creams in sun burns and trying to reduce pain are among the most important things that can be done. It would be most beneficial to calm down and get the patient to the nearest hospital. First aid information must be given to every family.