What is microinjection?

What is microinjection?

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Since the first application in 1992, there has been rapid development in the field of microinjection. Especially in the field of male infertility, this groundbreaking application is widely used and the suspicion that anomalies will occur in the pregnancies that occur despite the birth of thousands of babies all over the world is always on the top of the agenda.

These fears are based on two main principles. Two of these are unnatural structures of fertilization by performing various procedures on male and female reproductive cells. The fact that the fertilizing sperm is not naturally selected always carries a question mark. On the other hand, the needle used during the application of a small damage to the wall of the female egg causes further suspicion that these babies may have problems in the future. The second reason lies in whether male infertility is hereditary. The development of microinjection application and the progress of genetic research in male infertility have been in the same period. In some cases of severe male infertility, the detection of a break in the short arm of the Y chromosome is whether the problem is transmitted to the male child. In general, the reported anomaly rates do not differ from the rates of anomalies in pregnancies obtained naturally. Today, it is very difficult to compare chromosomal anomaly rates with the general population because many teams prefer to systematically perform chromosome analysis in microinjection pregnancies. However, there is no significant difference between the rates in the studies. Chromosomal analysis should be performed before microinjection in these cases because there is a high probability of chromosomal abnormalities in cases of severe male infertility such as non-occlusive azorspermia (no semen in the semen) or congenital ducts.

Long-term follow-up It was found that short-term and mid-term follow-up of children born after microinjection therapy had no adverse effects. However, long-term follow-up of these children is extremely difficult. In a study conducted in Belgium, 201 microinjection babies were followed for 2 years and no difference was found between the general population. Although there is no scientific evidence to raise concern about micronejection babies, there is uncertainty about the problems or diseases that may occur in the long term in these children.

The risk of infertility in boys The idea that couples with Y chromosome problems and infertility problems can transfer the problem to boys is not directly related to the microinjection method, but to the infertility problem of the couple. Since the sperm chromosomes were found to be normal on Y chromosome in some men, the role of the problem in infertility has been discussed in scientific circles. Although there are cases of infertility due to male or female genetic origin, it is impossible to determine the frequency of this source of infertility today. Broad epidemiological data suggest that genetic causes have little role in infertility. As a result, it has been nearly 10 years since the birth of the first microinjection baby and the data obtained show that this method does not carry a significant risk in general. However, there are still doubts about the long-term results of microinjection in very special conditions where immature sperm such as testis sperm or spermatid are used.

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