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Thyroid diseases are among the most common diseases in our country. The presence of this disease can cause some problems during pregnancy. That's why he's got to keep it under control. Maya Clinic Gynecology Specialist Op. Dr. Hüseyin Mutlu, Describes those who are curious about thyroid problems during pregnancy.
: Can you tell us about thyroid diseases in general?
Kiss. Dr. Hüseyin Mutlu: Although goiter is the general term, goiter is only the growth of the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones with the stimulation of the hormone TSH secreted from the anterior part of the pituitary in the brain. The presence of these hormones in the body hold from the cardiovascular circulation and also has functions in the metabolism of the whole body. With more or less secretion of thyroid hormones, very significant dysfunctions occur in the body. For this reason, regular functioning of the thyroid gland is very important in pregnancy as well as in daily life.
: Does pregnancy affect the functioning of the thyroid gland?
Kiss. Dr. Hüseyin Mutlu: Thyroid disorders in pregnancy are about 2%. Normally, some changes in the thyroid gland occur during pregnancy. The thyroid gland grows slightly during pregnancy and increases the secreted thyroid hormones. However, thyroid hormone excess findings are not seen. Because these excess hormones are secreted, the secretion of thyroid hormone, which increases the secretion by the effect of estrogen is inactivated by the protein. Therefore, thyroid hormones called T3 and T4 are found to be elevated during pregnancy.
: What is the importance of regular functioning of the thyroid gland during pregnancy?
Kiss. Dr. Hüseyin Mutlu: The thyroid gland of the unborn baby starts to function between 10 and 12 weeks. It plays an important role in the development of the baby's central nervous system. Not only the thyroid hormones secreted by the baby, but also the mother's thyroid hormones passing through the placenta play an important role in this development. Therefore, the presence of sufficient iodine in the foods the mother receives is very important. Iodine in the blood is very important in the production of thyroid hormones and congenital goiter is common in iodine deficient areas due to underdevelopment and operation of the thyroid in the baby.
: What are the consequences of over-secretion of the thyroid gland?
Kiss. Dr. Hüseyin Mutlu: Thyroid hormones are called hyperthyroidism. in hyperthyroidism palpitations, weight loss, excessive sweating and very frequent defecation. In the long term, external thyroid gland enlargement (goitre) and forward projection of the eyes are seen. In pregnancy, it is manifested by vomiting that does not respond to treatment from the early period. In hyperthyroidism, drugs that inhibit thyroid gland function are given. A few types of drugs are used for this purpose. But there is only one drug that is safe in pregnancy. This drug should be preferred first during pregnancy. If hyperthyroidism is not treated, excess thyroid hormones that cross the placenta suppress the baby's thyroid gland, causing congenital hypothyroidism.
: What results in under-secretion?
Kiss. Dr. Hüseyin Mutlu: It is called hypothyroidism when it is secreted less. hypothyroidism severe fatigue, chills, rapid weight gain, menstrual irregularities, difficulty getting pregnant, dry skin and early baby loss are seen. One of the most important causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto Thyroiditis. In Hashimoto's disease, the immune system activates against the thyroid cells and destroys the thyroid cells. The levels of hormones called TSH, T3 and T4 are evaluated in pregnant women with thyroid disease. In hypothyroidism, drugs containing thyroid hormone are given from outside. The hormone TSH is monitored to see if the drug is sufficient. These drugs are safe in pregnancy, do not harm the baby.
B>: Should thyroid values be measured after the baby is born?
Kiss. Dr. Hüseyin Mutlu: One of the most important issues is the examination of the thyroid of the newborn. TSH should be checked before the baby is discharged from hospital or at the first control. Because congenital hypothyroidism prevents both the baby's body and intelligence development. This is a simple test. In the presence of hypothyroidism, we will save the baby's future with a drug.