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Which examinations should children undergo at what age?
Check-up is a check-up that allows us to detect symptoms before illnesses occur, and at least take preventive measures before the disease occurs. In this way, we can prevent the patient from becoming ill and lead a healthy life. If we accept the age of starting kindergarten or daycare as 2-4 years old, children who have been routinely examined every 6 months after 2 years of age are required to undergo check-up examinations including the necessary consultation. In addition to the routine examination of the child at the age of 2,5 years when the primary teeth are completed, a dental check by a dentist is beneficial both in terms of early intervention if there is a dental problem and in terms of the child's fearless relationship with the dentist. During the routine examinations every 6 months, the pediatrician should evaluate the child in terms of physical growth, social development, appearance (paleness etc.), eye disorders, dental development and orthopedic problems. During this examination, if there is any suspicion of the pediatrician, he should ask for the necessary examinations and consultations. By the age of 4, routine examinations and vaccination checks are required. There are vaccines that should be administered between the ages of 4-6. In addition, if there are some mild orthopedic problems and these have not improved, it is appropriate to perform an orthopedic examination at this age. If the child has a pale appearance, blood tests should be performed to see if there is anemia. One of the factors affecting the growth of the child is the sleep pattern. During the school start-up period, the child should sleep for an average of 10 hours per day.
Which vaccinations are given at how old?
1 age controls are very important. The presence of anemia in children, iron stores should be checked, urine control should be done. We give the first dose of vaccines for measles, rubella, mumps and chicken pox at the age of one. At the age of two, we give the first dose of Hepatitis A vaccine. Vaccination and general medical examinations should be performed for four years. Mixed vaccines (diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-polio), measles, rubella and mumps should be given between the ages of four and six years. In addition, after the age of one year, the first dose of varicella vaccine should be given in consultation with the family.
Does the child have to undergo a check when starting primary school?
Controls are important when starting primary school. Because the child starts to read and write. At that time, all functions must be good. We're definitely doing a blood test. See if he has anemia. Because if the child has anemia, the child's learning ability will be affected. If he has visual impairment, he will not be able to see the board and his learning ability will be affected again. If there is any doubt about the hearing of the child, hearing and hearing tests should be performed by an otorhinolaryngologist.
What tests are being done for anemia?
For anemia control, a test called hemogram is performed. There are different types of anemia. Generally, anemia types are seen where micrositer (the diameter of the red blood cells is smaller than normal), macrocytic (the diameter of the red blood cells is larger than normal) and red blood cells are within the normal limits. There are also types of anemia due to the low number of red blood cells. If there are signs of anemia on the hemogram, additional tests are performed to determine which type of anemia is present. The most common iron deficiency anemia in children in our country. Therefore, the most commonly used tests to find the cause of anemia are iron, iron binding capacity and ferritin. Our country is a Mediterranean country and diseases such as thalassemia minor and thalassemia major (Mediterranean anemia) can be seen in our country. Sometimes iron deficiency anemia and Mediterranean anemia may coexist in a child. For this reason, we also want a hemoglobin electrophoresis test. If we suspect a macrocytic anemia, we want folic acid, B12.
When is it necessary to look at the child's blood fat?
If there is a risk of heart disease in the family, if the majority of family members have found high cholesterol, we look at the blood fats of these children. It may be familial cholesterol, and we regulate nutrition at an early age. If there is a problem in the family, such as high cholesterol, after two years of age and at age six, looking at blood fats will help us to protect the child against certain diseases. It is also useful to perform blood pressure control at regular intervals.
When do I need to have a hearing test?
If there is any doubt, it is necessary to have hearing tests immediately. Normally, we perform our hearing check by performing routine hearing test in the first month after birth. Taking into account the illnesses of the child up to that day (especially hearing loss in children with common tympanic inflammation may occur), an otorhinolaryngologist may be consulted. Hearing tests can be performed when starting primary school. The ear, nose and throat specialist controls how sounds he hears. It is a test performed when necessary. If the family does not hear the child outside the game when he calls, if there is a problem with his perception, if he misunderstands what you say or does not look when you call out, they should be paid attention.
Is it necessary to have a test to see if there is a thyroid problem?
If there is an obesity in the development of children, thyroid functions should be examined. When the thyroid is under-worked, other symptoms such as fatigue and slowness may occur in the child. Or if the child does not gain weight despite eating too much food, if the child is too active or nervous, then we should remember that the thyroid gland works very hard. In such cases, thyroid functions should be examined. But it doesn't have to be routinely looked at.
What are the diseases that children may encounter during school age?
Urinary tract infections are common. Because the child is with his family up to a certain age, the mother is with him in toilet training. But when he goes to kindergarten or elementary school, he won't be there for him and he needs to clean up. Children cannot be very skillful about cleaning the toilet and therefore have urinary tract infections. Parasitic diseases can be seen in public living areas, public toilets and handwashing. Upper respiratory diseases are also frequently encountered. Kindergarten and elementary school in the first year is very often seen especially. Because the child lives in a sterile environment before going to school. When he goes to school, he enters a crowded environment. Upper respiratory diseases are infected with droplet infections, so when someone coughs, they can all pass.