Hypertension in children

Hypertension in children

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Hypertension in children can occur at any age, including the newborn.
Hypertension can be divided into two groups: Essential or primary hypertension is the group we can not find any reason we call this type of hypertension is more common in adults. The other group is called secondary hypertension, where blood pressure occurs as a result of another disease in the body, such as kidney or heart disease. While hypertension is unknown more frequently in adults with unknown cause of essential hypertension, essential hypertension is almost never seen in children, especially in children under 6 years of age. Essential hypertension usually occurs in children after 10 years of age. There is almost always a cause of hypertension in children, so children with hypertension should be investigated in detail and it is not possible to treat hypertension in children without finding and eliminating the cause.
There are two important causes in 90% of hypertension in children. One of them is kidney disease and the other is congenital heart disease called aortic coarctation. Kidney diseases that cause hypertension, congenital renal disorders or stenosis of the renal arteries, as well as subsequent acute or chronic inflammation of the kidney may be. In aortic coarctation, hypertension develops due to stenosis in the part of the main arteries, which we call the aortic vein, which gives clear blood to the whole body after giving the left arm vein. Excessive adrenal glands, some tumors and some medications (such as cortisone, some cough medicines and nasal drops) are the less common causes of hypertension in children.

Essential hypertension almost never occurs in children under the age of 6 years, it begins to occur after the age of 10 years. The most important reason for the development of essential hypertension in children, as well as familial predisposition to unhealthy diet and reduced physical activity as a result of overweight and obesity we call obesity. Recent studies have shown that the rate of essential hypertension is increasing, especially in adolescents. The increasing prevalence of smoking in this age group as well as obesity is another important reason for the increase in the rate of essential hypertension as in adults.

It has been proven by scientific studies that the obesity that plays an important role in the development of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia (increase in blood fats) and cardiovascular diseases in young adults and adults in the early childhood and due to the lack of unhealthy nutrition and activity starting from infancy. In addition to obesity, smoking causes these diseases to progress rapidly and occur at a much earlier age.

Healthy nutrition, physical activity and sports starting from early childhood and even infancy; The adoption and application of a non-smoking lifestyle as a lifestyle involving all members of the family will significantly reduce the occurrence of these diseases.
If there is a slight increase in blood pressure, there is usually no symptom. Elevated blood pressure, headache, headache, nausea and vomiting, nosebleeds, restlessness, or personality disorder are common symptoms. Rarely, brain hemorrhage, paralysis, heart and kidney failure, visual disturbances or blindness may be the first symptoms. Sometimes blood pressure is high, even if the symptoms may not. Untreated high blood pressure can cause permanent damage to certain organs such as the brain, heart and eyes. For this reason, it is very important to measure the blood pressure of children at certain intervals, to make early diagnosis and to start treatment early in order to prevent permanent damage.

Since hypertension in children depends on different causes, treatments vary according to the cause. In essential hypertension in children, blood pressure is not very high. These children are usually fat less moving children. Blood pressure is usually controlled by weight loss, increasing physical activity, smoking cessation, and reducing salt. If blood pressure does not drop despite all these, blood pressure lowering drugs are used.

In secondary hypertension, cause-oriented treatments are applied. If the nephritis is due to chronic or acute infections of the kidney, water and salt restriction as well as blood pressure lowering drugs are used. If there is infection, appropriate antibiotic treatment is applied. If the blood pressure cannot be controlled despite the medications and unilateral, that kidney is removed by surgery. If the stenosis of the kidney is due to stenosis, the narrowed vein is opened by balloon or surgery and blood pressure is reduced. In aortic coarctation, the narrowed vessel is expanded with balloon or surgery and the blood pressure is taken under control and completely treated.

The incidence of hypertension in children is around 1%. Hypertension can be seen in children from the newborn. It occurs due to different reasons in each age group. Essential hypertension usually occurs after 10 years of age. It is almost never seen before age 6. Secondary hypertension can be seen in children in all age groups.
Especially children with secondary hypertension may enter a coma due to high blood pressure with attacks that we call hypertensive crisis. In this case, they may be lost on admission or despite emergency treatment.
In children with hypertension, there is almost always a cause, which can sometimes be understood by simple examination and analysis. Sometimes long-lasting repeated laborious tests may be required. These tests will undoubtedly affect a small and sick child. The family should also be patient with these examinations. In some, complete recovery can be achieved in a short time after the cause has been found. But some may require long-term recurrent treatments.

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