In recent years there has been a significant increase in allergic diseases. Environmental and air pollution, additive foods, medicines and the development of the industry are among the most important reasons for this increase. Yeditepe University Hospital Department of Pediatrics Allergy Department Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier, The mothers of children with allergy problems are missing something, they can not take care of the child enough, so there are some beliefs that the allergies, saying that this misconception: şunlar However, genetic predisposition is not so, söyl he says.
: What is Allergy?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: Allergy; They are called ler allergens ve and occur when the body overreacts against substances that enter the body from outside. Normally, it is the body's defense mechanism. In some people, however, this defense is exaggerated; self-harm begins, allergic disease occurs. So; there is an overreaction to the effect. This overreaction is the disease in which the organ or system is predominant. Asthma occurs in the lower respiratory tract and allergic rhinitis occurs in the upper respiratory tract; hay fever, such as spring fever. If the skin is atopic dermatitis, also called eczema, urticaria, also called hives. Sometimes a couple can be together. Sometimes one can turn into another over time.
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: Some people are genetically susceptible to allergic diseases. When exposed to environmental allergens, these people may tolerate to some extent. However, when the tolerance exceeds the limit occurs as a disease. It can occur at any age, as it is not known when it will exceed this limit. This genetic structure may be inherited from the family or may occur for the first time in that individual even though it is not in the family. But if the family has allergic disease, this risk is higher. Especially the mothers' concern is that they do something missing, that they cannot take care of their child enough, and that there is an allergy. However, not so, genetic predisposition is more decisive.
There are several theories of increase in recent years. Environmental impacts are considered first. Environmental and air pollution, additive foods, drugs, industry development, the development of medicine and infectious diseases to fight better, and the direction of the genetic structure, such as explanations. None of them alone is enough to explain. Research on this subject is ongoing.
: Does breastfeeding reduce the risk of allergies?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: In a word, yes. Babies should be breastfed for as long as possible; especially breastfeeding in the first month is very important in nutrition. If the family has a history of allergy, it is necessary to start supplementary foods as late as possible, to start solid foods late, and to encourage breast milk for a long time to reduce the risk.
: Does breastfeeding by an allergic mother increase the likelihood of allergies?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: No. Even if the mother is allergic, her milk will not cause the baby to be allergic. Research has shown that breastmilk and allergens do not pass, and those who pass are not enough to cause allergies in the baby. The mother should breastfeed her baby even if she is allergic.
: Does the probability of allergy increase in babies whose parents have allergies?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: The risk of allergy increases with genetic predisposition. The greater the degree of proximity, the greater the risk. For example, the incidence of allergic diseases in the community is around 10% on average. This means that one in every 10 people has allergies. If one of the parents has an allergic disease; this risk is 20-25%, 30% in both, 60% in siblings and 100% in single siblings.
: What are allergy symptoms?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: Which organ target is the symptoms of that organ is in the foreground. In the respiratory tract, asthma or allergic flu, such as eczema in the skin.
: What are the most common allergic diseases in infancy?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: The most common infants are infant allergies and respiratory wheezing with recurrent wheezing. Food allergy forms a group with a high chance of recovery over time. Wheezing babies also have anomalies, a foreign substance escaping to the respiratory tract, food, etc. such as an underlying cause should be investigated. If not, some of these babies recover spontaneously and some of them recover with treatment. Very few of them continue as asthma in the future.
: What measures can be taken?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: The most important measures to be taken are to correct the environmental conditions. In particular, no room in the house where the baby lives, never smoking with or without the baby. It is not possible to protect the house by ventilating it and blowing the smoke out. Excessively dusty, dirty house, the presence of mold-moisture in the room where the baby is unwanted environmental conditions. Late start of solid foods is also recommended for a baby with an allergy risk. Breast milk should be given as long as possible. New pets should not be admitted to the home after the symptoms of an allergic disease appear in the child. Animals that existed before the baby was born do not need to be dispatched from home.
: How is the diagnosis made?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: In order to make a diagnosis of allergy, it is necessary to evaluate the complaints carefully and suspect the allergy. To determine the environmental allergens, the child's age-appropriate tests are performed. If possible, skin tests to be interpreted correctly by the allergy specialist are very helpful. If this is not possible, the less sensitive blood may also be scanned. Again, depending on the system, pulmonary function test, radiological tests, long-term skin (patch) test, examination of nasal epidemic, sometimes skin biopsy, provocation tests can be applied. The doctor should decide which tests should be performed in which patient. In addition, in order to differentiate other diseases that are at risk of confusion by giving similar findings to allergic diseases, examinations for these other diseases should be performed when necessary.
: How is the treatment performed?
Assoc. Dr. Reha Cengizlier: Step treatment is applied. Protection comes first. General allergens should be avoided and special allergens detected as a result of the tests performed on that patient should be avoided. It's not always easy. For example, it may not be possible to completely avoid allergens entering the body by inhalation. Try to avoid as much as possible. The second step is a drug treatment consisting of therapeutic and relaxing medications to be selected according to the type of the disease. Drugs are reduced, increased, changed, dosage is adjusted according to the type, severity and characteristics of the disease. In other words, this process is a process that needs to be regulated continuously. It is not right for the patient to continue self-medication for years.
There is also vaccine treatment against inhaled allergens that cannot be avoided. It is a difficult, long, laborious and sometimes life-threatening treatment that lasts an average of 4 years. However, with the right choice, it is the only type of treatment that directs the disease to the direction of healing, even if administered to the appropriate patient and administered correctly. It must be started by the Allergy Specialist. Following the dose adjustment of the allergy specialist, it is also possible to benefit from the local health units in the administration of the recommended doses.