Visual functions at birth are not yet developed. In the first months of life, the visual acuity gradually increases, and the baby learns to focus on a target using both eyes. Three-dimensional vision is not yet available and at this early stage of life the baby is able to distinguish the mother's face and movements from close range. Children reach a visual function close to that of adults at the age of 2 years. First eye examination after birth… The first eye examination should be performed by the pediatrician after birth. In this examination, the pediatrician evaluates macroscopically whether there is an abnormality in the eyeball and surrounding tissues. Then he sheds light on the eye and examines the reflection of light from the eye. If there is a problem with the reflection of the light or if a white reflection is taken from the pupil instead of red, the baby should be referred to the ophthalmologist if there is one. The risk of retinopathy increases if the baby is born prematurely!If the baby was born before the 35th week, the fundus evaluation should be performed in terms of premature retinopathy 4 weeks after the birth, and the patient should be followed at appropriate intervals and treated if necessary. The risk of premature retinopathy increases with lower birth week and weight.Again see strabismus and glaucoma in 6 months!Eye contact should be repeated if there is no eye contact, slipping in eyes, rubbing eyes, light sensitivity, white eye reflection in the pupil at 6 months after birth. In this period, the most important or emerging problems are infancy strabismus, eye tumor called retinoblastoma and congenital glaucoma. Vision defects also affect school success!It is appropriate to repeat the examinations at the 18th month before entering the age of 2, where communication with children is relatively difficult. This examination is important for the detection of visual defects in the child which may cause lazy eye in the future. If the need for glasses is determined, it is possible for children to get used to glasses during this period. Even if the eyes appear completely normal, the eye examination should be repeated at 3-4 years of age. It is usually possible to establish a good communication with the child at this age, and in most of the children, visual acuity measurement, biomicroscopic examination and fundus examination can be performed. Eye laziness, usually found in one eye, can be missed unless examined. The visual acuity of the child should be evaluated by repeating the examination in preschool period. At school age, uncorrected refractive errors can affect the school achievement and communication in the classroom.