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Pneumococcal diseases, especially zaaturre, are common in winter. Hacettepe University Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases Dr. Mehmet Ceyhan, In winter, infants and children frequently seen infectious respiratory diseases and ways of protection are shared with you.
: What is the place of pneumococci among the most common diseases in infants and children in winter and what causes these diseases to be more common in winter?
Professor Dr. Mehmet Ceyhan: In winter, respiratory infections such as colds, influenza, otitis media, sinusitis, tonsillitis, bronchitis and pneumonia are increasing and the frequency of respiratory diseases such as measles, chicken pox, mumps and meningitis increases. The increase in the frequency of these diseases is not cold as a result of the cooling of the air as it is thought, but the people in this season as a result of the indoor environment for a long time to infect each other. Pneumococci are also among the most important respiratory infections and are among the most important. The incidence of pneumococcal diseases increases towards the end of autumn and decreases from mid-spring.
: What are the most common pneumococcal diseases in winter?
Professor Dr. Mehmet Ceyhan: The most common is inflammation of the middle ear, the most dangerous meningitis and bacteremia (microbes into the blood), the most killing is pneumonia. Every year, 4,300,000 people worldwide, including 1.5 million children in the first 5 years of age, die from pneumonia. Pneumococci are the most common bacteria causing these diseases. The causative agent is pneumococci in 30-40% of middle ear infections, 30-50% of meningitis, 50% of bacteremia and 50-60% of pneumonia. Pneumococcus is also the most common cause of sinusitis (30-40%). In other words; Pneumococci are the cause of at least half of the respiratory infections seen in the winter months, aside from antibiotic diseases such as colds, influenza and bronchitis, and tonsillitis caused by streptococci called “beta arasında.
: What should parents do to protect their babies and young children from these diseases?
Professor Dr. Mehmet Ceyhan: Families should take care not to keep their children indoors with people known to be ill. Especially in kindergartens and schools, children should be examined by the physician and the physician's recommendations should be followed. Throat culture in the form of screening from healthy children is of no use and leads to unnecessary material losses.
Hands are one of the most important means of transmission in respiratory diseases. Therefore, children should be given hand washing training. Washing hands with soap and water is sufficient for 10-15 seconds before and after a meal, after playing with toys and when coming home from outside. The most effective way to prevent pneumococcal diseases is pneumococcal vaccine. The newly introduced conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in our country is particularly protective against meningitis, partly pneumonia and otitis media in children aged 0-10 years. There are more than 80 types of pneumococcal bacteria, but only a few of them cause severe diseases. The 7 types of conjugated pneumococcal vaccine are effective in 70-85% of meningitis. Therefore, pneumococcal meningitis can be prevented with this vaccine.
: What distinguishes conjugated pneumococcal vaccine from other pneumococcal vaccines?
Professor Dr. Mehmet Ceyhan: There are two types of pneumococcal vaccines in our country. 23 vaccines, which are protective against bacteria, but have a short protective period, have been in our country for a long time and are used in older children and adults, elderly and at risk. Conjugated pneumococcal vaccine can be used from the second month of life and provides long-term protection in children under 2 years of age where pneumococcal infections are the most common and cause death. In some countries such as USA, Canada, Australia, England, France, Austria, 7-valent conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in childhood routine vaccination programs increases the immune response even under the age of 2, which is the most fatal period of infection, and provides a more powerful and rememberable protection memory in the immune system. It is created. The vaccine thus provides protection for infants and young children that has not been available before. In clinical trials, this vaccine has been found to be very effective in preventing childhood infections caused by pneumococci. in the US 37.000'In the California California Kaiser Permanente Study involving more than one infant, the percentage of preventing vaccine serotype-specific pneumococcal infections in fully vaccinated children with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine 97.4 rate was found effective. For example, in this study, following the routine use of the vaccine for one year, the incidence of pneumococcal disease in children under 1 year of age decreased by 87 percent over the previous 4 years.