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Serious diseases may occur when the necessary hygiene rules are not observed in the milk and milk products which are of great importance especially for the mother and the developing baby during pregnancy. One of them is brucella. In pregnancy, brucellosis can cause miscarriage and preterm labor and may cause anomalies in the baby. Dr. VKV American Hospital Women's Health Unit. Senai AKSOY answered the most curious questions about brucellosis.
What is Brucella?
Brucella is caused by the disease called brucella bacteria. This bacteria can be seen in humans, cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. Brucella bacteria cause miscarriage, infertility and breast diseases.
How is Brucella transmitted?
Brucella germ is transmitted to the environment through faeces, milk and waste fry membranes of sick animals and causes disease in humans. It can also be transmitted to humans through the digestive tract of infected meat or milk - milk products, infected animal tissue, blood, lymph, disintegrated skin, direct contact with the conjunctiva (the external part of the eye) and inhalation of infectious aerosols. The incubation phase of Brucella bacteria is 6 - 20 days.
What are the symptoms of Brucella?
Brucella germ is located in the liver, lymph nodes, secretory glands, spleen and nerves. It shows the same symptoms as many febrile diseases. However, muscle pain and sweating are more intense in brucellosis. In some cases, it may cause fever, which is not very high. Other symptoms include fatigue, loss of appetite, and consequently weight loss. The disease may last for several weeks or may persist for several months. Different pathological changes may occur after brucellosis. In some cases, after brucellosis, granulomatous (tuberculosis with inflammation), hepatitis, arthritis, spondylitis (painful, progressive rheumatic disease), anemia, leukopenia (reduction of white blood cells in the blood), thrombocytopenia (blood platelet count), meningitis inflammation), optic neuritis (inflammation of the visual nerve, characterized by sudden loss of vision of the posterior part of the eye), and endocarditis (inflammation of the heart valves or inner membrane).
How is brucella diagnosed?
Which stage of the disease plays an important role in the selection of tests necessary for diagnosis. Direct blood tests are performed when the brucellosis is feverish. However, serological methods are used if the disease is chronic. To this end, the Rose Bengal Test (RBPT) can be used to diagnose 98% confidence. Serum Agglutination Test (SAT), Complement Fixation Test (PFT) or Coomb's test can be performed if the degree of infection must be determined for diagnosis.
How is Brucella treatment?
Various antibiotics are used in the treatment of the disease. Multiple antibiotics should be used in combination for several weeks.
What is the effect of Brucella on the fetus?
Brucella bacteria transmitted during pregnancy can cause premature labor due to low or high fever. The baby may also have an anomaly or disability. Brucella treatment is applied with appropriate antibiotics that will not harm the fetus during pregnancy.