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The structure of women's swimming pools changes throughout their lives

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How can I tell whether my preschooler is developing a stuttering problem?

Between the ages of 30 months and 5 years your child is in the midst of a leap in her language skills, so it's natural that she should have some difficulty putting her sentences together fluently. (She stutters when her brainpower outstrips her verbal dexterity.) Her rapidly developing brain is trying to pull up the right words in the right order. In the process, she may repeat the whole word or first syllable, resulting in something that sounds like this: "Mom ... I-Mom ... I-I-want-uh-I want you-gimme dat teddy bear!"

This stumbling over words is different from a true stuttering problem (also called dysfluency), which affects only 5 percent of children and is unusual in preschoolers. If your child is truly stuttering (and not just stumbling over words occasionally), she may drag out the first sound in a word, saying "ssssoda," or repeat the sound, as in "Sh-sh-she nice!" She may also open her mouth to say something and then get stuck before any sound comes out. Along with this "blocking," you may see tension in her jaw or cheeks, or she may look away or clench her fist from the tension, blink repeatedly, grimace, or stomp her foot from the frustration of trying to get the words out.

Preschoolers (and adults, too) tend to stutter when they're upset, uncomfortable, angry, or even just plain excited. If your 3- or 4-year-old is stuttering only at these times, and the stuttering is mild, don't rush to get her evaluated. Most kids outgrow it without any intervention by age 5 or 6. If she's really struggling, however, or she hasn't improved within three to six months, talk to her pediatrician, or, if she's in preschool, with her teacher. Her school may be able to refer you to an early speech and language intervention program (usually coordinated through the county or public school system) that will provide free speech and language screening. Or her doctor can refer you to a speech-language pathologist for an evaluation.

For years, it was thought that preschoolers were too young to begin formal speech therapy for stuttering — that it would only make them self-conscious. Most practitioners now feel, though, that a child with a severe stutter (usually measured in the number of repeated or prolonged sounds and blocks) can benefit from early intervention. If exercises are presented as fun games, even a preschooler can learn strategies to reduce the frequency and severity of stuttering episodes.

You can also take steps at home to help a child who stutters. Whether your preschooler is simply going through a normal dysfluent stage or exhibiting a true stutter, the way in which you respond is important. Keep your voice soft and relaxed, your speech slow — think Mr. Rogers. If you are a rapid staccato talker, try to slow down so your child doesn't feel the need to respond in a similar manner. Don't tell her to slow down, though — just speak slowly and she'll follow your lead. Maintain eye contact, smile, and be patient. If you turn away and act hurried, your preschooler will feel pressure to "get it out" and this will only make her stuttering worse. Allow your child to express her frustration or embarrassment. She may say: "I can't say it. It won't come out." Acknowledge her feelings by saying: "I understand how frustrating that must be." If you look frustrated, your preschooler will pick up on this and be even more self-conscious. There is no need at this point to let her know her stuttering is frustrating or worrisome for you.

For more information and resources, call the Stuttering Foundation of America at (800) 992-9392.


Magna-Tiles These are just blocks. They can be easily connected with each other thanks to the magnetized edges ...

A great idea, right?

Today is pasta party! View the slideshow

Pasta, big and small are fans! Spaghetti, tagliatelle, fettuccine, angel hair, farfalle ... discover our recipe ideas for the whole family, from babies to adults. It's pasta party!

Today is pasta party! (12 photos)

Farfalle with tuna

Yum ! A delicious recipe of almost big. From 12 months. See the recipe

Fettuccine with vegetables

A colorful plate that mixes gourmet vegetables and pasta. What to unanimously! See the recipe

Alphabet soup

A bit small for the alphabet ... except at the table! From 9 months. See the recipe

Pasta with vegetables

Vegetables, it goes alone with pasta! A fantastic recipe and vitamin to make him taste as early as 18 months. See the recipe

Cream of green beans

An astonishing mixture of small pasta and beans to make him discover from 8 months. See the recipe

Chinese noodles

Sauteed vegetables, Chinese noodles ... from 18 months, make him discover these flavors. See the recipe

Crispy angel hair

Angel's hair ... little pasta crispy in the teeth! With these little cookies, guaranteed pleasure from 2 years. See the recipe

Tagliatelle carbonara with lamb's lettuce

Delicious little bacon in a melting recipe with pretty colors. See the recipe

Spaghetti with almond pesto

Pesto and pasta is a love story that is not about to end. In this recipe, the pesto highlights the taste of spaghetti and it's good! See the recipe

Lasagna with vegetables

Lasagna 100% vegetables, a recipe full of flavors to taste. Young and old will feast. See the recipe

Bolognese lasagna

Lasagna, big and small are fans! Why not do them yourself? It's easy, fast and so good. See the recipe

Pasta with vegetables

Carrots, tomato, broccoli ... vegetables, it goes alone with this recipe in Italian fashion! See the recipe

What changes will occur in your body during pregnancy?
During pregnancy, a woman's body undergoes incredible, miraculous changes. Uterus, respiratory and circulatory system ini what changes are expected in your body during pregnancy Gynecology and Obstetrics Specialist Op.Dr. View Tevfik's Full Profile It explains.

Changes in the uterus

The uterus is an organ that normally weighs 70 mg and has a maximum internal cavity of 10 ml. In a pregnant woman this space reaches an average capacity of 5 liters to accommodate infants and their supplements. Its weight reaches 1100 gr.

The uterus, which was initially very small in the matchbox, reached a large orange size at the 10th gestational week and is still in the pelvis, not overflowing into the abdominal cavity. Until this period, growth develops globally. With the 12th gestational week, the uterus begins to grow longitudinally, in the form of melons. In the 20th week of pregnancy, the upper limit of the uterus reaches the level of the navel. While all these changes in uterine size occur, the ligaments that hold the uterus in place naturally stretch. This strain often causes groin pain in pregnant women.

The upper limit of the uterus rises up to the lower limit of the faith board at 36 weeks of gestation and regresses to the lower level with the lowering of the baby's head in the last month.

Abdominal Anterior Wall

In advanced pregnancy months, itching and pinkish, rose or silvery streaks (cracks) occur on the anterior abdominal wall and breasts due to skin tension. At the end of pregnancy, these lines disappear spontaneously in some pregnant women and remain the same in others.

Respiratory system

In early pregnancy, respiratory rate increases by 10% per minute. In the last months of pregnancy, the mother's oxygen consumption increases by 15-20% to meet the increasing needs of the unborn baby. The extra covering of the uterus in the mother's abdominal cavity has a negative effect on the mother's breathing. In order to compensate for all of this, the changes in the cardiovascular system come into play with a 6 cm increase in the number of respirations and around the rib cage.

The circulatory system

During pregnancy, the heart rate (10-15 beats / minute) and minute beat volume increase to meet the needs of the developing baby. So the heart is pumping more blood. In addition, there is an increase in the number of red blood cells and blood volume assigned to carry oxygen. The increase in blood volume continues until 24-36 weeks of gestation. The increased blood volume is about 1200-2500 ml, with an average of 800 ml of blood circulating in the uterus and the baby's partner (placenta). With the effect of hormones secreted by pregnancy, smooth muscle is seen in the vascular wall and as a result, blood pressure of pregnant women tends to decrease in the second trimester.

Increased blood volume during pregnancy meets the needs of the baby, is used to meet the bleeding that will occur during delivery (normal amount of bleeding at birth: 500-700 ml during vaginal delivery, 800-1000ml during cesarean section). Parallel to changes in the circulatory system, blood supply to the skin and mucous membranes increases. Especially during pregnancy, vaginal wall and perineum (genital area) with increased blood supply and water retention in this region connective tissues and muscles cause relaxation and softening. This is part of the preparations for birth.

Digestive system

An increase in oral saliva is observed during pregnancy. The stomach and intestines are displaced by the thrust of the growing uterus. Appendicitis, for example, has abandoned its classic position in the advanced weeks of gestation and is located on the right side above the navel level.

With the effect of increasing hormones due to pregnancy, the emptying time of stomach and intestine contents is prolonged. This causes more water to be absorbed from the intestines and causes constipation. In order to avoid constipation, expectant mothers should make a habit of drinking more water than normal.

The pressure of the uterus on the stomach and the effect of hormones and gastric pharynx, which forms a barrier between the pharynx and the relaxation of the stomach contents into the pharynx are frequently seen. This causes bitter water to come into the mouth and burns behind the sternum.

Liver And Gall Bladder

Although pregnancy causes liver growth during pregnancy in some animals, it does not cause cell change or growth in humans in the liver. However, it may make acceptable changes in liver function tests.

The situation in the gallbladder is different. Smooth white muscles on the gallbladder wall work more slowly with the effect of pregnancy hormone, which causes more bile to accumulate in the gallbladder and later discharge.


As the gestational week progresses, the pressure on the uterine bladder, which grows, causes frequent urination in pregnant women.

For your questions: Op. Dr. Tevfik Yoldemir: [email protected]

Cheese: are you in focus?

How to have healthy nails

If you have nails that are not bright, it can be deficient in vitamin A and calcium, according to British specialists. Lack of protein, folic acid and vitamin C can cause nail clogging. Also, the white lines on the nails can be caused by protein deficiency.

If you have nails that are not bright, it can be deficient in vitamin A and calcium, according to British specialists. Lack of protein, folic acid and vitamin C can cause nail clogging. Also, the white lines on the nails can be caused by protein deficiency.
Experts also say that insufficient intake of vitamin B12 can lead to bending of the tips of nails and closing them to color. The lack of zinc can cause white spots on the nails, say the same specialists. If you do not get enough hydration, your nails may crack. Another problem may be the redness of the skin around the cuticles, which may be caused by poor metabolism of the essential fatty acids.

To ensure the necessary vitamins, minerals and enzymes, it is recommended that the daily diet does not stick to fresh fruits and vegetables. Doctors say that we must consume a sufficient amount of fluids every day, especially water. If you find such or other problems it is advisable to consult a doctor to find out the exact causes and possibly to receive the recommendation for some dietary supplements.
Read the whole article in: The Thought
December 22, 2006

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