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Infectious diseases in childhood

Infectious diseases in childhood

The most common infectious disease period in humans is childhood. In recent years, there has been a significant decrease in infectious diseases especially in developed countries due to the attention to general hygiene rules, vaccination practices and the drugs used.

Infectious diseases are usually transmitted through the mouth, nose, eye secretions and feces. For this reason, it is very important to follow some simple general hygiene rules to prevent these diseases.

General rules for protection from infectious diseases:

1. Hand washing: Hand washing with soap is a very effective way to prevent intestinal infections and upper respiratory tract infections.
2. Use of clean and reliable drinking water
3. Meat and products, egg cooked by eating well
4. Very good washing of raw eaten vegetables and fruits
5. Preventing contact with sick people as much as possible
6. Non-availability of children in smoking environments
7. Washing hands after contact with pets and preventing children from kissing pets
8. Having the necessary vaccinations for children
9. After contact with people with serious infectious diseases such as contagious jaundice, meningitis

Common Infectious Diseases in Children

1. Measles: The causative agent is measles virus. It is more common in winter and spring months. It can be transmitted to anyone who has not been vaccinated or infected. Contamination through droplet occurs. Infectiousness begins 2 days before the rash begins and continues 4 days after the rash disappears. The incubation period is 8-12 days. Fever, runny nose, watery eyes, cough are the initial symptoms. After 2-3 days, red rashes starting from the face and spreading to the body and white spots (rupture) are seen in the mouth. The disease lasts an average of 1 week-10 days. Significant complications such as otitis, pneumonia, encephalitis can be seen. Prevention is achieved through vaccination and prevention of contact with sick persons. Treatment is indicative. Consult a doctor for diagnosis. Antipyretics, warm bath, rest in dim environment and plenty of fluids are suitable.

2. Rubella: The causative agent is the rubella virus. It is more common in winter and spring. It is transmitted through the droplet. Transmission time is 7-10 days before the rash begins and 7 days after the rash. The incubation period is 15-20 days. It is usually a mild disease. Mild fever begins with swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck, with small pinkish rashes spreading to the face and body. The disease lasts for 2-4 days. No treatment is required. The complication is very rare, sometimes there may be a decrease in platelets and encephalitis. Prevention is provided by vaccination and prevention of contact. If it is transmitted to pregnant women who have not been vaccinated or infected, it creates serious risks to the fetus! In such cases, a doctor should be consulted.

3. POCKET: The causative agent is bacteria. It is seen in winter and spring. It is more common in infants under 1 year of age. It is transmitted through the droplet. The incubation period is 7-10 days. The disease can last up to 6 weeks. Initially there are symptoms such as dry cough and mild fever. After 1-2 weeks the cough is exacerbated; in between, it explodes without breathing and coughs and a thick sputum can be removed. The eyes become red during coughing, reddening or bruising on the face, sweating and excessive fatigue. This period lasts for 1-2 weeks, during the recovery period, these findings disappear and disappear over time. It is necessary to consult a doctor for diagnosis and treatment. Inpatients, antibiotic treatment, oxygen therapy and humidification of the environment and mucus aspiration are used in infants. It is protected by vaccination. Ear inflammation, pneumonia, complications such as referral may occur. It can be life-threatening, especially in infants.

4. WATER FLOWER: The causative agent is varicella-zoster virus. It is seen in late winter and spring months. It is transmitted by droplet and direct contact. The infectious period lasts from the beginning until all the lesions are involved. The incubation period is 10-20 days. The disease lasts 7-20 days. The initial symptoms are fever, weakness, anorexia. Then itchy rashes, first reddish, then similar to watery acne, appear. After 3-4 days, the rash crusts and new ones emerge. Consult a doctor for diagnosis. Treatment is indicative. ASPIRINE MUST NOT be given for fire. Complications such as encephalitis and pneumonia may occur. ! Infants under 2 months should be particularly protected from contact. Chickenpox vaccination can be given to those older than 12 months. There is a risk of infection in pregnant women.

5. ERYTHEMA INFECTION: The causative agent is the parvo virus. It is usually seen in spring. Transmission occurs through direct contact. The incubation period is 4-15 days. The disease lasts up to 3-10 days on average. It is most commonly seen between the ages of 2-12. Symptoms; It starts with intense redness on the cheeks (like slaps) and then red rashes on the arms and legs. There may be redness on the hips. The rash may disappear for 2-3 weeks and reappear. Heals spontaneously without treatment. There is no vaccine.

6. ROSEOLA INFANTUM: The causative agent is a virus. Seen in all seasons. It is mostly seen in infants and young children under 2 years of age… Transmission occurs through respiratory secretions and feces-mouth. Incubation is 5-15 days. The disease lasts for about 1 week. The disease begins with high fever. Restlessness, loss of appetite. Sometimes there is a runny nose, swelling of the lymph nodes and referral. 3-4. The day the fever falls and pale pink rashes are seen spreading all over the face and body. Sometimes there may be no rash. A doctor should be consulted for diagnosis. Symptomatic treatment is required. Antipyretics and plenty of fluids can be given. There is no vaccine. Prevention is achieved through prevention of contact.

7. MUMPS: The causative agent is the mumps virus. It is more common in winter and spring. The infectious period is 2 days before the onset of symptoms and 9 days after onset. It is transmitted directly by respiratory secretions. Incubation is 15-18 days. It starts with widespread pain, fever and loss of appetite. Afterwards, symptoms such as swelling of the salivary glands on both sides of the chin and pain during chewing occur. Sometimes vomiting, headache, drowsiness nape and back pain may occur. Complications of meningoencephalitis may occur. Symptomatic treatment is applied. Fever and painkillers, cold compresses can be applied to the cheeks. Acid-free, non-sour soft foods are suitable for nutrition. Vaccination is possible.

8. VIRAL UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTION (SIMPLE COLD PERCEPTION): The causative agents are various viruses. Seen all year round. The incubation period is 1-4 days. Contamination occurs mainly by hand contact and respiratory secretions. The disease lasts an average of 3-10 days. Symptoms; runny nose, sneezing, nasal congestion, dry cough, fever, weakness and loss of appetite. There is no definitive treatment. Findings are treated with drops (opening of the nasal congestion with drops, humidification of the ambient air, antipyretics for fever and giving plenty of fluids). Hand protection and prevention of direct contact with sick persons is important for protection. Sometimes it may cause complications such as middle ear infection, bronchitis and sinusitis. If the baby is less than 3 months old, and fever of more than 38 degrees lasts more than 2 days, there is excessive vomiting, malnutrition, difficulty breathing, or severe cough for more than 1 week, consult a doctor.

9. RED: The causative agents are streptococcal bacteria. It is seen in all seasons, especially in winter. It is more common in school age children, under 3 years of age and rare in adults. The incubation period is 2-5 days. The duration of the disease is 1-2 weeks. It starts with sore throat, fever, weakness and anorexia. Could be vomiting. On the face, there are small red rashes that concentrate on the groin and armpits and spread throughout the body, the rashes are itchy. The skin may then peel off. Doctor control is essential for diagnosis and treatment, it is necessary to use antibiotics. Complications such as ear infection, pneumonia, sinusitis, skin infection, rheumatic fever and nephritis may occur. Protection is provided by taking care of the isolation and hygiene conditions of infected persons.

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Thinking and play: school-age children

About play and cognitive development for school-age children

School-age children can absorb new information quickly and are excited by learning.

Although your child is learning in more formal ways now, play is still one of the main ways that school-age children develop skills to think, understand, communicate, remember, imagine and predict.

Playing with you is still important too. When you play with your child, you can help her learn new things or practise what she's learning at school. For example, if you and your child are playing a board game, you can practise numeracy skills by adding up your points.

And playing with your child keeps you close and strengthens your relationship. This is important as your child goes through the ups and downs that can sometimes come with starting school, coping with new routines and making new friends.

Thinking ability and self-esteem are closely linked at this age. Worries, big and small, can easily distract your child from thinking clearly and learning. Fear of failure or being made fun of can also become barriers. Taking the time to talk with your child can help your child overcome these worries.

What to expect: cognitive development in school-age children

With time, practice and experience, your school-age child will probably:

  • collect items like cards or shells, and enjoy grouping them
  • be able to read on his own from about seven years old
  • be able to tell the time from seven or eight years
  • know left from right
  • be fascinated by science experiments
  • be able to understand you if you try to reason or negotiate with him
  • want to follow the rules and play fairly in games
  • think before acting and ask permission before trying something new - most of the time!

Starting school gives your child lots to think about. There are new rules, routines and more formal learning styles that are different from those at home. This can be tiring and confusing at first. Your child might need time and lots of love and support to adjust.

Many schools have programs to help children prepare for this transition. You can also talk with your child's teacher if you have concerns or want ideas for supporting your child through this change in her life.

To think and learn well, your child needs to eat well and get plenty of sleep. This gives your child the energy to play and learn at school.

Play ideas for cognitive development in school-age children

To encourage your child's thinking through play, you can:

  • provide puzzles and encourage your child to put most of them together himself
  • play games together, like board games, simple crosswords, word-finders and card games - for example, 'Go fish', 'Snap' or 'I spy'
  • read books, sing songs, tell jokes and riddles together, invent new words or think of rhyming words
  • introduce your child to basic magic tricks
  • play building and construction games
  • cook together and encourage your child to help you measure and weigh the ingredients
  • play outdoor games, like kicking or throwing a ball together.

You can help stimulate your child's excitement about learning and extend her thinking by finding out about your child's interests. For example, if your child is fascinated by sea urchins, you could visit the local library together and find books on the subject, or visit the beach to search for sea urchins. Encourage your child to share what she's learning with you.

Also, learning by doing is best at this age. Your child will learn faster if you step back and provide encouragement and support from the sidelines. Avoid jumping in to provide solutions. Your child will generally let you know if he needs help, so follow his lead.

Many school-age children enjoy some screen time. Screen time includes time spent watching television and playing games on computers, mobile phones and tablets. If you choose to let your child use screens, it's good to focus on making quality media choices that support your child's cognitive development.

Children develop at different rates. They don't all do the same things at the same time and in the same way. But there are general patterns that most children more or less follow. If your child seems to be having trouble learning at school or isn't working at a similar level to her peers, it might be a good idea to talk with your GP or your child's teacher.

Drawing, scribbling and writing: activities for children 3-6 years

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