Meaning of the name Barrabás. Name for boys

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Cyril

Cyril

Cyril

For a boy who wants to succeed in life, Cyril is the perfect name. It comes, indeed, from the Greek term "Kurios" which means "Master" and also "Devoted to the divine".
His party : Like Saint Cyrille, Cyril is celebrated on March 18th.
Its derivatives: Cyril, Cyril, Cyrielle, Cyrilla and Cyrillia.

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The Bitest or Screening Test for Chromosomal Abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy

Bitest, why is it done and what chromosomal abnormalities are detected?

Screening test for chromosomal abnormalities from the first trimester (popularly mistakenly known as bitest) is a non-invasive method for assessing the risk of fetus having chromosome abnormalities such as Down syndrome (trisomy 21) or trisomy 18. The test involves two steps: analysis of maternal blood for two substances (PAPP-A and β-hCG) and an ultrasound evaluation of the fetus to determine the value of a parameter - nuchal translucency. These values ​​combine and formulate a specific fetal risk for chromosomal abnormalities.

In addition to screening for these abnormalities, part of the test (ultrasound measured translucent nose) can help identify fetal malformations, such as cardiac abnormalities. This test does not detect neural tube defects.

Available studies show that the first trimester screening test has an accuracy of over 85% for identifying chromosomal abnormalities with a false positive rate of 5%. What does this thing mean?

About 85 out of 100 babies affected by the chromosomal abnormalities that this test is looking for will be identified by this test.

About 5% of all pregnancies will have positive test results, but babies will be completely healthy (false positive results).

It is very important to consider a positive test result NOT it necessarily means that there is an anomaly. This test describes a risk, does not make a diagnosis. If the result of this test is positive, then tests are required DIAGNOSTIC such as biopsy of chorionic villi or amniocentesis. Only these tests can CONFIRM the existence of an abnormality of the fetal chromosomes. If the result of this test is negative, the risk of fetus for Down syndrome and other genetic abnormalities is very low.

Bitest should not be confused with second trimester screening tests (popularly known as triple testing). Triple-test is a screening method for fetal anomalies that has a lower accuracy and is done between 15-20 weeks of pregnancy.

Analysis of maternal blood

The first stage of the trimester I test involves obtaining from the mother a small amount of blood and measuring the values ​​of two substances: PAPP-A (plasma protein associated with pregnancy) and hCG (beta fraction of human chorionic gonadotropic hormone).

Nuchal translucency

The second stage involves performing an ultrasound within which the dimension in millimeters of a fetal structure is determined - nuchal translucency - the area containing liquid, located at the neck of the fetus. This ultrasound is done by a doctor who has a specialization that allows him to do this ultrasound. At the beginning of the ultrasound examination, the doctor will ask for other data of the mother, such as age, race, etc.

The values ​​obtained from the two steps are combined and with the help of a software determines the risk of the fetus to have certain chromosomal abnormalities.

What to consider before taking the screening test for genetic abnormalities in Q1

This test is a screening test and not a diagnostic test: screening tests estimate a person's risk of having a certain abnormality. These tests are NOT DIAGNOSTIC, which is not to say that the anomaly exists. They guide subsequent medical behavior - the need for further testing. In our case, an increased risk of Down syndrome in this test, requires the making of a biopsies of chorionic villi or performing amniocentesis.

How is the test done?

Blood is collected from the mother in a laboratory that can dose the two hormones being evaluated. The analysis can be done at any time of the day. The mother should not be unattended. Harvesting lasts 5-10 minutes and does not involve risks (other than any blood collection). The ultrasound should be done by a specialist doctor in this type of evaluation and lasts on average 20-30 minutes. It measures the size of the space with liquid located in the beds of the neck of the fetus, in the area of ​​the head. This distance is noted in millimeters (nuchal translucency).

What are the risks to the mother or baby?

The risks are practically zero. Apart from the discomfort associated with blood collection, other unpleasant effects are not. Ultrasound does not affect the baby or the mother. The fact that there are no risks is very important for a screeening test. In this way it can be applied widely, to all pregnant women, selecting those in which the tests should be more invasive.

Invasive tests (biopsy of chorionic villi or amniocentesis) have high risks of losing the pregnancy, are expensive, require a lot of time and specially trained personnel and therefore cannot be done on all pregnant women, in mass. It is important to remember that the rate of false positive results in the screening test is 5%. Parents need to be prepared that in the case of abnormal screening results to take additional, more invasive and riskier tests.

When is the test done?

Most doctors recommend the test between 11 and 13 weeks of pregnancy. Some newer studies also offer a slightly different approach, which involves blood collection starting at week 9 of pregnancy and ultrasound evaluation until the beginning of week 14. Abnormal test results involve performing a biopsy of chorionic villi (can be done early in pregnancy) or an amniocentesis (later in pregnancy, after 16 weeks).

What anomalies determine the first trimester screening test?

In fetuses who have an increased risk of chromosomal and cardiac abnormalities, the nuchal translucency, the fluid-filled area of ​​the fetal head, is increased. Some ultrasound patients correlate the size of this area with the CRL (cranial-caudal length of the fetus) corresponding to the age of pregnancy.

Also, girls with abnormalities may have abnormal levels of hormones dosed from hCG or PAPP-A blood. In the first trimester screening test, these values ​​are combined (nuchal translucency, hCG and PAPP-A) with the risk factors associated with the age of the mother and possibly with other factors, depending on the doctor, obtaining a total risk. of chromosomal abnormalities, especially Down syndrome.

Down syndrome it is an anomaly in which there is a chromosome 21 in addition to the two normal ones. Children with Down syndrome can have heart, cranial, facial, mental retardation and other abnormalities throughout the body. These children have special needs for growth. Any pregnant woman of any age can have a child with Down syndrome. The risk of having a child with Down syndrome increases with age.

When should testing continue?

The first trimester screening test determines the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus, it is a non-invasive procedure, which does not pose risks for the mother and the fetus. A positive result of this test involves performing additional tests: biopsy of chorionic villi or amniocentesis.

The biopsy of chorionic villi and amniocentesis can determine with almost 100% accuracy if the fetus tested has Down syndrome or other chromosomal abnormalities, but they have a 1% risk of pregnancy loss (fetal death after the procedure). The biopsy of chorionic villi can be done as early as week 12 of pregnancy. Amniocentesis is done only later than week 16. Knowing a precise diagnosis is important because it allows parents to make certain decisions regarding pregnancy - keeping or not getting pregnant, planning for raising a child with special needs, etc.

Tags Pregnancy analysis Tests pregnancy Pregnancy at risk Down syndrome Down syndrome

The evolution of science is, in effect, a series of surprises: we know more and more of the world, and this also means that we sometimes have to overcome the previously unshakable facts. It's not with our brains either.

Of course, we know much more about the brain, brain function, perception, or consciousness than we did a few decades ago, but according to experts, they are still scratching the surface. In addition, one after another, we find evidence that overthrows our previous theories! Among them, collected some Nick Charter British psychologist.The Great IllusionIn general, we believe that our circles embrace the great world with a single, detailed and colorful "snack" of color. In reality, however, our eyes are sensitive to colors and details in an extremely narrow "window".We only detect one color at a timeNo matter how colorful the world is, we have only one color at a time; In an experiment, random samples had to be analyzed by volunteers, and it turned out that comparing the samples was much more effective when they were examined in color rather than in whole.We still know very little about how our brains work We only focus on one filter at a timeWhile reading, we may be sensing that we are listening to the whole text (or at least dozens of words at a time). However, if we were to follow the eye movement accurately, it would turn out that we really only focus on about 15 letters. We wouldn't really find it strange if there were only x's side by side with these little "windows".We can't focus on more than one thing at a timeEvidence is growing that people can't focus on more than one thing at a time, and multitasking is actually slower and more tiring. The neural networks in our brain can only handle one task at a time, and the more complex this task is, the more "networks" we need. In addition, if we perform another complex activity, our brains are not able to work in parallel, but are "jumping" from one task to the other. This causes loss of efficiency and increased fatigue, and also makes mistakes easier. This is one of the reasons that hands-free handsets have the least impact on the driver than hands-free phones.Memory or fantasy?Most of us think that we can recall everyday objects, events and events in a very precise and detailed way. In fact, however, this is not at all our strength: our visual memory is much weaker, more cloudy, and more disorganized than we believe - despite the fact that we may find certain images to be extraordinarily lifelike. It's worth trying: Prepare yourself for a tiger and determine how your hips are moving on your body and in your foot, and what exactly is happening where your foot and body meet. Isn't that simple, is it?Everything is context-dependentAccording to Soviet filmmaker Lev Kuleshov, the story of a film does not simply evolve in the end, but in the end, that is, in fact, the context is determinative, not what we have seen. In the course of one experiment, the same color expression was used for the eyes of the other, depending on the image that followed it. Accordingly, the face may express sadness, sadness, or even hunger. Of course, this is also true in the day-to-day: the environment, our previous knowledge or even our thoughts influence how we perceive and interpret the information we receive.Do you know your feelings?Surprisingly, not only can the interpretation and identification of other people's senses be problematic (and depends on the context), but also how clear we are of our own senses! An interesting study, for example, found that men were more attractive to women after they woke up in a high, narrow curtain, but this was not influenced by women's role but in men's body. This heightened state (caused by heightened fear and danger) was appealing to me.Problem solving in the backdrop?We like to think that if we "fix" a problem for a while, then our brains in the background continue to work to solve it. However, the brain can only perform one task efficiently, so unfortunately the unconscious and unconscious can work at the same time. Of course, this does not mean that it does not help if we stop and take a break and then start dealing with the problem again. However, it is not the unconscious working in the background that can help with the solution, but the inspirational effect of new situations (such as a talk or thought) that bring us to life.I know what I want!While it seems logical that our motivations, our desires, or our preferences influence our decisions, in fact, it is much more the case that the affirmations and explanations follow the unexpectedly made.We just think we understand the worldThere is a huge divide between how much we believe in understanding the world and how it works, and in the fact that we can really explain it: that is, we know and understand much less than we believe. Most of us think that we know exactly the forces and effects that move our world, but our knowledge - with a few exceptions - is really lacking and often confusing. Parents with small children are well aware of this phenomenon. It's not easy to explain why clouds are cool or how cool the refrigerator is! (Via)You may also be interested in:
  • 7 frightening facts about the baby's brain
  • Believe me about brain functioning
  • How can I help the baby's brain develop?

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You are expecting twins! What a great news! Double joy, double responsibility and double concern when decorating your bedroom? Don't believe it, it's not that complicated. It is very important to take into account an essential factor: functionality. Think that there are elements that are going to be shared such as the closet or the changing table. Others on the other hand, such as the crib will be individual.

Even if they are twins or twins and you should start thinking in double, we are going to give you some tips to help you achieve a comfortable and safe environment for your children.

1 – The color: if both children are of the same sex it is easier to make a decision. But if they are a boy and a girl you have two options: either use a neutral color that works for both babies or you can differentiate the spaces of each of them with complementary colors. That will give a very personal touch to the bedroom, yes, our usual advice: use light and relaxing tones, they are babies and we want to help them fall asleep and be calm.

2 – Cribs: its placement will depend a lot on the available space. It is preferable that the cribs are placed in parallel or contiguous, in the same line, so you can attend to babies more comfortably. There are even double cribs in which each child has their own space.

3 – The closet and the dresser / changing table They will have enough capacity to store the children's clothes and all those items that they may need and that you need to have on hand. If the dresser includes the bathtub, it will be very practical when it comes to cleaning the babies.

4 – Accessories: there are elements that from my point of view are advisable. For example: a breastfeeding chair that allows a good posture during the feeding of babies, some shelves or containers where to place their toys and books and that will be very useful especially when they grow up, a rug for their first games on the floor, a lamp, curtains to filter the light ...

5 – Decor: some paintings, silhouettes, photo frames, ... will give a lot of life to the room. You can personalize each child's space with their name or a special detail. There is a lot to choose from.

You can read more articles similar to How to decorate a room for twins or twins, in the category of Rooms on site.



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