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22 weeks pregnant

22 Weeks Pregnant - What to Expect Your 22nd Week of Pregnancy

Bipolar disorder in women

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive disorder, is a type of depression in which the affected person manifests an extreme behavior, from states of euphoria to states of pathological sadness. In women, the symptoms of the disease are mistakenly mistaken for mood swings under the influence of hormonal activity.


A woman suffering from bipolar disorder will constantly swing between exaltation and despair. The contradictory episodes vary greatly from one person to the next, but in general the frequent cycles are 3 or 4 bursts each year.

Bipolar disorder is caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain, caused by certain genetic defects in which serotonin and norepinephrine play an important role. The hereditary factor is the most plausible explanation for the onset of the disease, as the family history always contains similar cases.

Bipolar disorder: manifestation

Bipolar disorder can have two main forms, called bipolar I (mania and depression are both pronounced) and bipolar II (mania is often moderate and depression is severe). Women are diagnosed more often with the second variant of the disease, easily confused with generalized depression.

The first episode in women is depressive, followed by many others of the same kind before a manic episode occurs. As patients age, the recurrences of the disorder tend to occur more frequently and last longer.

Manic and depressive phases in bipolar disorder

A woman entering the manic phase of the disease will suddenly become jovial and hyper-energetic. It manifests through exaggerated reactions in normal or banal circumstances, they are easy to irritate and difficult to satisfy. Unshakable gestures, illogical speech, running away from ideas, exaggerated opinion about oneself, insomnia, grandomania and hallucinations are representative.

Depressive phase is usually observed within the family. Characteristic of these episodes are deep sadness, low self-esteem, overwhelming inertia, loneliness, feeling of worthlessness and helplessness, guilt, slow talk, fatigue and poor coordination and suicidal thoughts.

Bipolar disorder: treatment

The commonly used medication is lithium carbonate, often given in combination with other antidepressant combinations. A quiet lifestyle, with lots of rest and physical activity, can prevent the onset of episodes of the disease.



Causes of constipation in children

Constipation can happen for several reasons.

Your child might be holding poos in because he's too busy playing, because it hurts to do a poo (or has hurt before), or because he doesn't want to use the toilets at his preschool or school.

Constipation might also happen if your child isn't eating enough fibre, or because of an illness that has made your child eat and drink less.

These situations can all lead to a build-up of poo in the bowel. When this happens, the poo gets too hard for your child to push out easily.

There are some underlying medical conditions that might cause constipation in children, but these aren't common.

Symptoms of constipation in children

A normal poo should be easy to push out and look like a sausage.

But if your child is constipated and her poo is hard to push out, she might feel pain and discomfort when she's trying to do a poo or doing one. This might make her avoid going to the toilet.

Hard poo might overstretch your child's anus and cause small, superficial tears, which might lead to pain and bleeding.

Your child might also have tummy pains that come and go. He might show 'holding on' behaviour like rocking or fidgeting, crossing his legs or refusing to sit on the toilet. He might also seem generally cranky.

If your child has been constipated for a long time, she might poo in her pants without meaning to. It could be a small or large amount of poo and can happen at any time of the day. This is called soiling or faecal incontinence.

Faecal incontinence happens because the hard poo is stuck and stretches the rectum. Your child might then lose the urge to go the toilet because his rectum always feels stretched. Liquid poo might overflow around the old hard poo, without your child feeling it or meaning to let it go.

There's a big range of normal when it comes to how often children do a poo. Some children go 2-3 times a day, and other children go twice a week.

When to see your doctor about constipation in children

You should take your child to the GP if:

  • you need to give your child a laxative more than a few times a year
  • your child's constipation doesn't get better after you give her a laxative
  • your child hasn't done a poo for seven days
  • your child poos in her pants without meaning to
  • your child has constipation and also fever, vomiting, blood in her poo or weight loss
  • your child has painful cracks in the skin around her anus
  • your child has constipation and you're worried she isn't eating or drinking enough.

Treatment for constipation

Your child needs healthy bowel habits.

The first step towards healthy bowel habits is diet. A healthy diet that has enough fibre helps to prevent constipation. Foods that are high in fibre include wholegrain breads and cereals, fruit and vegetables.

Regular toileting
If your child is constipated, encourage him to get into the habit of sitting on the toilet regularly and pushing. It's good if he can do this for five minutes about 20-30 minutes after he finishes eating breakfast, lunch and dinner.

It can help if your child has a footstool or box to put her feet on while she sits on the toilet. Get her to put her feet flat, knees apart, and lean forward slightly while pushing.

You can also teach your child to be aware of and respond to his body's urge to poo. One way to do this is by starting a sticker or reward chart to praise your child for going to the toilet.

You might need to give your child a laxative if she's constipated, so she can pass the hard poo without pain.

Prune juice is a mild natural laxative that works in some children. If this doesn't work, you should see your doctor.

Possible laxative medications include:

  • osmotic laxatives like lactulose, Movicol® or OsmoLax®, which increase the water in your child's poo and soften it
  • liquid paraffin oil, which softens and lubricates the poo
  • stimulants like Senekot® or Dulcolax SP® drops, which stimulate the bowel to get rid of the poo.

Some children with chronic constipation will need to keep taking laxative medications for several months. Your doctor will let you know about the appropriate course of treatment.

Constipation in babies

Your baby might be constipated if his poo is dry and crumbly or like pellets, and doing a poo seems to cause him pain and discomfort.

It's rare for breastfed babies to be constipated. If your breastfed baby is constipated, it's possible she isn't getting enough breastmilk. You might need to feed her more often.

Formula-fed babies might be constipated because the milk formula isn't made up correctly and doesn't have enough water in it. Getting the formula mix right and giving your baby extra fluids might help.

Some babies can get constipated if a hard poo has caused a tear in the rectum or anus, which hurts them. They instinctively hold on, so the remaining poo gets hard and more difficult to push out.

If you think your baby is constipated, see your GP or child and family health nurse.

What's normal?
It's common for many babies to go red in the face and strain when doing a normal poo.

In babies under six months, how often they do a poo depends on what they're fed.

Breastfed babies might poo up to five times a day, or only once every five days. Their poo is soft and yellow or mustard coloured.

Formula-fed babies usually poo 1-2 times per day. Their poo is firmer and more green-brown.

The blood pressure of the mother can influence the gender of the baby

According to a study published in the American Journal of Hypertension, a mother's blood pressure can have an effect on the birth of her son or daughter.

The blood pressure of the mother can influence the gender of the babyThere are many methods and beliefs in the public mind that help the mother predict the sex of the baby to be born, but unfortunately none of them is scientifically proven. However, a few years ago, a study was published in which young women were monitored for their health before having a baby. They were thoroughly examined on the day of the "recruitment" and reiterated this when they became pregnant and pregnant, and finally when their baby was born. Dr. Ravi Retnakaran In a 2009 study led by endocrinologists, a total of 1,411 Chinese women participated in Liuyang Province. After comparing their blood pressure, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels, they came to systolic blood pressure (the first among blood pressure values) in women who have a son is slightly higher, on average (106 milligrams of mercury / mmHg), and slightly lower in those whose children are born (103.3 mmHg). It should be noted that researchers excluded factors such as age, smoking, BMI, and blood and glucose levels during the study. Retnakaran concluded that the results of the study found that maternal blood pressure may indeed be an important factor in the child's gender that has not been taken into consideration. This in turn can help to understand the basic mechanisms that govern human gender distribution (via)
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