Physiology and Management of Fetal Hypoxia

Physiology and Management of Fetal Hypoxia



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What your grade-schooler knows – and needs to know

Despite what many of us have been taught, there's nothing wrong with talking about the color of people's skin. In fact, the opposite is true: Teaching kids not to talk about race can contribute to the problem of racism. It's never too early to begin nurturing a healthy awareness of diversity in your child.

As kids enter grade school, they begin to figure out that the color of their skin has meaning beyond the colors found in a crayon box. Grade-schoolers are starting to categorize people in more sophisticated ways. They'll ask questions about appearances and identity that reflect their heightened awareness of subtle differences in skin tone, eye shape, and hair texture.

Five- to 8-year-olds are also increasingly curious about what groups they and others belong to. Questions from other kids – as well as those sparked by TV and movies – will begin to shape their notion of race. How you respond to your child's growing curiosity will affect her ability to relate to people of different backgrounds throughout her life.

As with other tough topics, it helps to talk to your child early and often about race. Embarrassment or silence gives your child the impression that the topic is off-limits or that a bigoted remark is accurate and acceptable to you. Children look to their parents for moral cues, and they'll learn from your actions as well as your words.

How to talk about race with your grade-schooler

Expose your child to people of all shades. If you don't live in a diverse neighborhood and your child doesn't go to a school with kids of other races, surround her with children's books and artwork featuring people of different races. Take her to events where you can interact with a range of people. Five- to 8-year-olds are the perfect audience for a step dancing group, Japanese cultural festival, or Kwanzaa celebration.

Stick to the facts. When your child asks about race, keep your answers direct. Children this age aren't able to process complex ideas like a teen or adult can. As always with kids, answer just the question asked.

Don't overreact to comments or questions. If your child makes a surprising comment or asks a startling or even offensive question regarding race, don't ignore it or hush her. Instead, respond in a nonjudgmental way – say something like "Let's talk about that for a minute..." so she doesn't think the topic is taboo. Then dig for context: "What made you notice that?" Try to get more detail about what the observation means to your child, says Susan Linn, a psychologist at the Judge Baker Children's Center at Harvard Medical School and coauthor of Talking to Children about Racism, Prejudice and Diversity. Your child's answer can spark a conversation. "To raise a child who's curious, not afraid, about differences, it's important to send the message that differences aren't bad," Linn says.

If your child offends someone with a remark, ask her to apologize, suggests Marguerite Wright, psychologist and author of I'm Chocolate, You're Vanilla: Raising Healthy Black and Biracial Children. Later, in private, talk to your child about how certain comments can upset people. But don't make too big a deal about it – she's just learning.

Discourage labeling. Do you or other adults in your child's life tend to refer to people by race – "that black lady" or "that white man"? If so, your child will pick up on the habit. At this age, children begin to make their first derogatory comments, like "That black kid Bobby is a bad kid." If your child says something like this because she's been bullied by another child, validate her hurt feelings while reminding her that Bobby is an individual. "Send the message that it's not okay to judge a person by a group," Wright advises. Call people by their names rather than labeling them by race, and teach your child to do the same. If your child's grandparents or other adults in her life make racist comments, don't let them slide. Discreetly point out how your own view differs.

Filter the media, and talk about what your child sees. Don't let your child watch TV or read newspapers unsupervised. The media too often transmits stereotypes and distortions regarding race. While school-age kids understand that TV is not reality, they easily pick up on subtle messages about race and culture, so step in to challenge any racial stereotypes you see. If a news story about a racially charged incident comes on, take it as a "teaching moment" to discuss tolerance.

Don't overdo it. Talking openly is good, but you can place too much emphasis on race. Overemphasizing is no better than avoiding the topic. Give your child information, but in small doses.

Aim for "color fairness," not "color blindness." If you don't acknowledge differences, you fail to prepare your child to live in a multiethnic society. The message should be that "your ethnicity is part of who you are," says Wright, "and it's important to treat everybody fairly and equally."

Answers to common questions about race

"What race am I?" Others might ask your child this question, or it could come up as part of a school project about where families come from. Use family photos and a globe or map to talk about where your child's ancestors once lived, what they looked like, what language they spoke, and so on. This might get more complicated in multiracial families, but 5- to 8-year-olds can process the idea of belonging to more than one group.

"Why aren't I brown like Dad?" This question may come up in multiracial and adoptive families. Start off by saying "Every family is different." If your child is multiracial, talk about how she looks a bit like both her parents and her grandparents. If her skin color is different than yours, point out that her nose or her smile is similar and that you both like to read and play cards. Adoptive parents can talk about how children and parents don't have to "match" to be a family.

"Can I be white?" This question might come as a shock, but try not to show it. Grade-school kids want to fit in – if your child is in the minority in her school, she may have picked up on messages that some look down on her race. First find out why she's asking, then calmly talk to her about her heritage and what it means to you, using family photos, books, art, or music to reinforce a positive image. The bottom line is, no, you can't be white, but here are all the wonderful things about being the color that you are.

What else you can do

Surround your child with diversity. Arrange playdates and sleepovers with kids from racial groups she doesn't normally interact with.

Be proactive about teasing and excluding. In elementary school, the first conflicts involving race may arise. School-age kids, particularly girls, often segregate themselves by race as early as kindergarten. One researcher found that by age 6, many children already harbor racial prejudices. When Wright's daughter came home to say another child didn't want to play with her because she was "brown," Wright talked it over with her, then invited the other girl over for a playdate. She also spoke to the school about the incident, and the teacher brought it up in class without mentioning which children were involved.

Encourage diversity at school. Find out what books are read in your child's school library. Suggest diversity where there is none, with books like Let's Talk About Race orThe Story of Ruby Bridges or White Socks Only. Parents at some schools form diversity committees to organize workshops, trips, and multicultural potlucks or festivals. And Wright suggests that parents get actively involved in recruiting students and faculty of other races.

Talking to Children About Racism



Origin of first name:

Slaves

Meaning of the name:

Very common in the countries of Eastern Europe, the name "Danica" comes from the Old Slavic meaning "morning star".
Because of the Slavic myths describing the goddess "Danika", this name is also translated as "dawn" or "dawn".

Celebrities:

In Slavic mythology, the goddess "Danika" appears to mortals as the morning star, visible a few moments before the first light of day. The divinity thus precedes his big sun brother in his daily journey.

The American animator, writer and actress Danica Mae McKellar, seen among others in the series "The Wonder Years" of the ABC channel. She is also known for her books as "Kiss My Math" to encourage the general public and especially girls to love mathematics.

Danica Krstajic, professional tennis player from Montenegro.

Famed NASCAR driver Danica Sue Patrick built her legendary IndyCar Series and Daytona 500. In 2013 she became the first woman to win a pole position at the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series in a time never before achieved since 1990.

His character :

Smiling, sociable and slightly extroverted, Danica embodies the joy of living and exudes a particularly soothing aura. She loves exchanges and is always looking for new faces. Nevertheless, this charming woman is individualistic, ambitious and obstinate. Thanks to her strong will, Danica is able to overcome all the difficulties of life in order to realize the least of her desires. She never goes back to work and manages to put a lot of effort into realizing her projects. This determined woman represents a valuable ally in the world of work.

Despite her toughness and endurance, Danica also has some character weaknesses related to her emotivity. She knows how to manage her vulnerability once an adult. This insightful, dynamic and attentive woman has all the assets to guide her fellow men. However, she sometimes tends to abuse her charisma to impose her point of view on others. During her childhood, little Danica tends to stand out immediately within the group. Your role as parents is mainly to control his tyrannical impulses. You must instill in him essential values ​​such as sharing, the concession and the importance of the other.

Derivatives:

Danika, Danaca, Danicah, Dannica, Donika, Dannika and Donnika.

His party :

No particular day is attributed to the Danica for the moment.

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No matter how baby cries!

No matter how baby cries!
Name Maurice - Meaning and origin

Origin of first name:

Ancient, French, Originals, Rare

Meaning of the name:

Maurice is from the term maurus translated as "dark" or "dark" and means the people of the Moors.

Celebrities:

French musician and lyricist Maurice Chevalier, Belgian poet Maurice Carême, comedians Maurice Chevit and Maurice Baquet, cyclist Maurice Garin, choreographer Maurice Ravel and journalists Maurice Siegel and Maurice Seveno.

Saint Maurice was a Roman soldier of the Theban legion. He died during the massacre of the Theban Legion. He and his companions refused to kill the inhabitants near Octodius who converted to Christianity.

His character :

Maurice has a strong character. Not easily influenced, he only listens to his own opinions, but is nonetheless attentive. Friendly and sociable, he has no difficulty in making friends. His balanced and thoughtful nature urges him to think carefully before acting. Feeling the need to please, Maurice seeks to attract attention. He does it without difficulty, thanks to his charm and eloquence.

As a child, Maurice develops a certain sensitivity that will diminish as he grows up. Endowed with great wisdom for his age, he is astonished by his keen intelligence and his sense of humor.

Derivatives:

Meurisse, Maurizio, Mauricio, Mautitz and Maurtis.

His party :

Mauritius is celebrated on September 22 at Saint Maurice.

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Pacifier For Babies - Benefits, Risks And Tips

Meaning of the name Magoriano. Name for boys

Among all the names for boys we highlight Magorian. You will find in our search engine all the meanings of baby names.

Variant of Majorian. It is also the name of the Christian baptism of Saint Mayoriano (5th century).

It comes from the proper Latin name Maiorianus, a variant of Maios, "older, older, the oldest."

March, 15th.

Latin

  • Medardo Pantoja, Argentine painter (1906-); Medardo Fraile, Spanish writer (1925-); Medardo Ángel Silva, Ecuadorian poet (1898-1919).

Magoriano name coloring pages printable for kids

Magoriano: pictures of the names coloring page printable game

Drawing of the name Magoriano coloring page printable game

Drawing with the name Magoriano coloring page printable game

Drawings of names. Magorian name to color and print



Fetal Screening Test Between 11-14 Weeks

Screening is performed in pregnant women between 11-14 weeks. It is based on the measurement of soft tissue thickness in the nape of the fetus. In patients with Down syndrome risk, the amount of fluid in the neck increases and hence the thickness increases. This method is also important in detecting chromosomal anomalies that are seen less frequently. The method should be applied not only to pregnant women but also to all mothers. Down syndrome is the most common genetic disease and trisomy is present on chromosome 21 of fetus. So there are more chromosomes than they should be. This causes various and irreparable abnormalities in the fetus. Down risk is 1/1400 under 25 years, 1/350 in 35 years and 1/100 in 40 years.
The definitive diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities of the fetus is clearly understood by amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling (CVS). However, the probability of the fetus falling in these methods is around 1 / 100-100%. Because of this possibility, expectant mothers may not be interested in such invasive methods.
During the NT measurement, a blood test to the expectant mother shows abnormal fetal protein or hormone levels. And in this case the fetus is at high risk. Therefore, it may be necessary to undergo such invasive tests.
In the diagnosis of Down syndrome, maternal age and NT measurement between 11-14 weeks started to be applied in 1990 and 75% of affected fetuses can be detected with this method. The probability of spontaneous loss of fetuses diagnosed as positive by the 12th week is around 30%. NT measurement also serves to diagnose Turner syndrome, trisomy 18, 13 and triploidy.
The measurement is ideally done between 11-14 weeks. The fetus image should cover 75% of the ultrasound screen. The fetus head should be in the neutral position. That is, it should not be bent forward or backward. Measurement is performed on the fetus lying on its back. The measurement should be made considering the thickest distance. It is very important that the amniotic membrane at the bottom does not participate in the measurement.
The baby's head-butt distance is also important. NT thickness is determined to be increased in 60-80% of trisomic fetuses. At 12 weeks, the average thickness was 2,18 mm. In 13% of chromosomally normal fetuses, this measurement may be over 1.5 mm. It is particularly important to combine NT values ​​with blood values.
Especially in the fetus affected by Down syndrome, increased HCG and decreased PAPP-A are detected in the blood sample taken from the mother. Evaluation with blood values ​​reduces the false positive rate.
In Down syndrome, only NT measurement determines the problem in 62% and it is false positive in 5%. When combined with blood values, these values ​​are 73% and 4.7%, respectively. Detection rate was 89.7% in the second 3 months with a detailed ultrasound scan, while false positivity was around 4.2%.
The absence of the nasal bone of the fetus in the NT measurement determines the diagnosis of Down syndrome with a 95% probability.
In the light of all this information, CVS or amniocentesis should be performed for confirmation. NT measurement is performed only at the specified weeks since fetal lymphatic system develops and reflects the pathology immediately. Congenital lymphedema is mentioned if the nuchal thickness increases progressively between 11-14 weeks.

The Danish capital is a pleasant and relatively small city, comfortable to explore on foot or by bike, so staying in the center is the best. However, since public transport is very efficient and not so expensive with the appropriate tickets, it is not a bad option to stay in the adjacent neighborhoods either.

In terms of gastronomy, in Denmark you will find everything you are looking for. Remember that in Copenhagen, VAT is included in the amounts that you will see on the food menu, but not the tip. Diners must leave an extra of around 5% of the total bill.

The first thing you must decide is in which area of ​​Copenhagen you want to sleep during your trip. The area around the Tivoli Gardens, between the center and Vesterbro is the most touristic part of the city so almost everything is close at hand, but the prices are higher than in other more remote areas.

Another option is the center, with its cobbled streets lined with charming shops and restaurants. Here you will find charming design hotels and apartments of all kinds. Precisely, the apartments - with a lot of offer in Copenhagen - are one of the best options when traveling with children. Having a kitchen 24 hours a day will facilitate your stay.

It should also be borne in mind that in Denmark there are well-cared hostels with family rooms where for a very reasonable price, you will enjoy a large, clean and comfortable room. Forget about the image of an old hostel with bunk beds, in Copenhagen the comfort of the guests is essential.

Modern Danish cuisine has earned its place among the best kitchens in the world. In fact, the prestigious Danish restaurant Noma has been awarded three consecutive years as the best restaurant in the world.

Many are the haute cuisine restaurants in Copenhagen that offer high-quality gastronomic experiences for demanding palates, of course, they are also for well-off pockets. If your budget is not so high, you will also easily find a multitude of restaurants and places to eat at all hours for reasonable prices. In the wineries and in the cafes you will find fast and cheap meals.

If you want to try the specialties of traditional Danish cuisine, based on products such as beer, rye bread, salted pork or smoked pork, be sure to try the "smørrebrød" or mounted on buttered and coated rye bread fish, meat, cheese, shrimp, smoked salmon, etc. Also try the beer bread soup (øllebrød), the apple and bacon fry (æbleflæsk), the barley porridge (vandgrød) or the cod (klipfisk).

You can read more articles similar to Copenhagen's best hotels and restaurants for kids, in the category of Tourist destinations on site.

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