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Fourth month of pregnancy. Pregnancy stages

Fourth month of pregnancy. Pregnancy stages

The fourth month of pregnancy marks the beginning of second trimester of pregnancy. It is marked by tranquility, since the fear of losing the baby disappears, since spontaneous abortions are more typical of the first trimester of pregnancy. Notice the baby's first kicks it is a sign of your good health. The first fetal movements or kicks of the baby are usually noticed between week 16 and 18 when it comes to the second pregnancy or later and around week 19 or 20 when it comes to the first pregnancy.

At this stage of pregnancy, the baby's development progresses, and the fetus moves, kicks, swallows, and can hear the voices outside. his skin is pink and transparent. The umbilical cord continues to grow and expand to carry enough food from the mother to the fetus.

The future mom you will feel more appetite as the discomforts of the first trimester of pregnancy, such as morning sickness and vomiting, disappear. During the second trimester of pregnancy, the pregnant woman will be able to fully enjoy her pregnancy and will feel with more energyYou will be able to show off your tummy, but it won't feel as heavy as in the third trimester of pregnancy. Thanks to this agility you can take advantage of gentle exercise and lead a life full of well-being.

Towards the end of the fourth month of pregnancy (16-20 weeks), you will probably feel, for the first time, a slight movement of the baby. It is advisable to tell your doctor, as it is an indication of good health. The belly is now in full growth, prepare your wardrobe, since from the fourth month of pregnancy you will probably need maternity clothes and bras of a larger size.

Once the baby is formed, from the fourth month of pregnancy the baby begins to grow and ddevelopment of all its vital structures. For this reason, the diet of the pregnant woman is essential and must be provided with all the nutrients that the baby needs. The requirements of some of these nutrients, such as iron, which is necessary for the formation of hemoglobin in the blood, are difficult to obtain from food alone.

Therefore, during the prenatal examination of the fourth trimester of pregnancy, your doctor will pay special attention to your iron levels, to rule out possible anemia in pregnancy. You may recommend taking iron through supplements.

Regarding your weight, you will begin to notice an increase in weight in pregnancy of approximately 200 grams per week. Prenatal tests for the fourth month of pregnancy are the alpha-protein (AFP) test to detect neural tube defects, which will be done from week 16 to 18. fourth month ultrasound of pregnancy, it is possible that the sex of the baby is already appreciated, because its genitals are formed.

The size of the baby is still small, because in the fourth month of pregnancy, the baby begins its development, but it already looks like a newborn because its body begins to grow proportionate and his head no longer represents the double of his body as in the first weeks. In this important stage of pregnancy it weighs between 100 and 200 grams and measures approximately between 10 cm and 15 cm.

At this important stage of pregnancy, baby's senses they are in full development. Your eyes begin to react to light, and your ears can perceive external sounds. The mother's voice is one of the first sounds that she recognizes and, therefore, she can begin to speak gently with the baby and stimulate her with soothing music. It also begins to distinguish different flavors within the amniotic fluid that it swallows and reacts to tactile stimuli.

His skeleton begins to harden and the baby begins to make wide movements within the gut, is what is known as baby kicks. The external sex organs can already be clearly distinguished by ultrasound. As long as the position of the child allows it, if it is a boy the penis and scrotum will be visible, while if it is a girl the vulva will be visible.

You can read more articles similar to Fourth month of pregnancy. Pregnancy stages, in the category of Stages of pregnancy on site.

In Romania, 1 in 4 children does not go to kindergarten

Under the slogan "Birth rights!", in period April 22 - 28, 2012, over 600 kindergartens, but also schools and high schools from all over the country will take part in Global Campaign for Education, project coordinated by the Save the Children Organization.

According to the latest statistics from the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports Research, the attendance rate at the national level of preschool education is 78.4%, under the conditions that the "Europe 2020" Strategy sets as an objective to be reached by the EU member states. at least 95% of preschool children participate in early education. The percentage of children attending pre-school education drops sharply in the case of Roma children, being slightly over 30% (Presidential Administration, Risks and social inequities in Romania).

Kindergarten is the foundation on which children build relationships and the environment in which they acquire the skills necessary for their successful integration into school.

In the schools participating in the Global Campaign for Education, children, together with teachers, parents, representatives of local authorities and members of the communities, will participate in information and awareness activities on important topics for early childhood care and education (0-8 years). ) and will try to illustrate through photographs, drawings and paintings what the ideal early childhood should look like.

Internationally, numerous studies confirm the importance of early childhood, this being the most critical period of human development.

According to the Rethinking the Brain study (Shore, R., 1997):

  • Experiences up to the age of three years have a decisive impact on the development of brain structures and skills of future adulthood;
  • Around the age of three, the brain of a child is twice as active as the brain

to an adult;

  • Up to three years, about 80% of brain development is accomplished;
  • In preschool, the brain of the child is 3 times more active than the brain of a teenager.

Preschool education has long-term positive effects, including in terms of school success, better test results, reduced risk of repetition and dropout (W. Steven Barnett, Preschool education and its lasting effects). The same study shows that public investments in pre-school education for all children can produce significant educational, social and economic benefits.

The interventions needed to ensure a good start in life are in different areas such as nutrition, access to adequate health services, providing a safe environment and providing intellectual and physical stimulation. Children are actively learning since birth, and the early years are vital to their future success in school and in life.

In Romania, there is sufficient data that underscores the need for authorities to make further efforts to improve care and education for early childhood. So:

  • Only 2.5% of the children of pre-preschool age have access to nurseries. The insufficiency of places in the church is illustrated by the fact that, in 2010, in the public nurseries the number of children - 17,293 - was significantly higher than the number of beds - 14,880 (Source: INS and the Ministry of Health, data processed). According to the data of the Ministry of Health, the number of nurseries decreased drastically after 1990, from 840 (in 1990) to 285 (in 2010);
  • After the first three quarters of 2011, a number of 8,203 children between 0 and 3 years old suffering from malnutrition were in the register of the family doctor, representing over 72% of the total number of people suffering from malnutrition in Romania (Source: Ministry of Health);
  • The data and information available indicate a worrying state of Roma children. Thus, it is estimated that 40% of children in Roma households are malnourished, and 45.7% of these children do not benefit from all vaccines in the national immunization plan. Moreover, 50% of Roma children living in isolated ghettos and rural areas are not immunized against any disease (Source: FSD, Roma Education Fund, UNICEF);
  • The law of national education recognizes the place of early education (including pre-preschool) in the national education system and includes special provisions regarding it, but, at present, Romania does not have a Strategy on early education;
  • Romania has not yet adopted a strategy on parental education, although the Romanian authorities recognize the importance of Recommendation no. 19/2006 of the Council of Ministers of the Council of Europe regarding policies aimed at supporting positive parenting;
  • The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child enshrines the rights that every child must enjoy, including the right to education, care and health, and recognizes the priority role of parents and family in ensuring these rights. Since 2006, the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child has expressed concern that the states do not pay sufficient attention to ensuring these rights and the least of the children.

"My child managed to make friends in kindergarten, but apart from this he learned to be obedient, to know that the topics are very important. Due to this kindergarten program organized by Save the Children, my child is doing well in school" (mother of a child who has benefited from access to the summer kindergarten, within the programs carried out by Save the Children Romania).

"Early childhood is an essential period. Without access to education, without adequate nutrition and a minimal parental education of those in charge of their care, many children are sentenced to a less good start in life. In Romania, we have we need strategic, coherent and coordinated initiatives, especially in the field of early education and parental education, to ensure that the rights of our children are protected and put into practice from the beginning, "said Gabriela Alexandrescu, Executive President Save the Children Romania .

At the international level, the Global Campaign for Education is carried out in over 180 countries and is supported by personalities such as Nelson Mandela, Queen Rania of Jordan, Hillary Clinton, Kofi Annan, Paulo Coelho, Angelina Jolie.

Addition: introduction of seeds

We often receive requests from parents that the baby may eat some honey, sesame seeds, dips and so on. First we need to clarify what we mean by "seeds."

Addition: introduction of seedsOilseeds include sunflower seed, almond, di, peanut, cashew, macadamia, pistachio, sesame, pumpkin seed, linseed.

What if your child consumes oily seeds?

The most important characteristic of oilseeds is that they have an outstanding fatty acid content and what is important is the "JУ" fats. You don't have to be afraid of greasy cocks: Your child needs normal development, brain, nervous system testing. They are full of minerals, vitamins and rich in white. (Children with vegetarian diets should have oil seeds in the menu!) Babies may also consume them if:
- healthy, ie not belonging to an increased risk group from an allergological point of view (think of existing dietary allergies and / or eczema);
- both the pediatrician and the nurse agreed that they could be introduced to the child.

Attention! Before introducing peanuts, ask your pediatrician for advice before starting your baby's nutrition!

How do I introduce the seeds?

1. Külцn-Külцn.
Do not introduce more than one at a time, as if your child has a symptom, you will not know what is causing it. Among the introduction of some raw materials leave for 3-4 daysto make sure you can link any reactions to the right ingredients.2. In the right environment.
According to international recommendations, too hard foods (such as oilseeds, but also chips, raw apples / rapeseed) should not be given to children under the age of 4 as they can easily cause choking. However, this can be avoided by proper preparation of the raw materials, in this case oilseeds. With kneading, cream filling. Beware, shredding is not enough: small, hard pieces can easily get into the airways, causing trouble!

No known source of danger

Don't be afraid to just think of well-known councils. Imagine a marshmallow covered with sesame / honey / linseed. (Although the brand is not entirely in this group, I mention it here.) Each of these forms can also be observed in these forms! Avoid this form of the aforementioned seeds during adolescence, but with a healthy baby you can get this:
- doing the work (don't worry, no opium in it)
- flaxseed, sesame seeds, cream.

The method: how will these become pips?

You need a mortar, a little power, and the oilseeds will be popping in no time. If you roast them a little dry before popping, they will be finer, more intense. If you are cold, you can try a peppery grinding machine instead of a pestle.

How do you smuggle oilseeds into your baby's menu?

When your baby is eating a piece of food lightly, you have an easier job: simply add / mix peppers made of oilseeds into your meal: - piscuta, muffin, note: di, almond
- Ball: flax seed, pumpkin seed, sesame seed
- pancakes: any kind depending on the nature, but the almonds and the juicy filling are very delicious (even without sugar, mixed with banana / apple juice).
In summary, it is better to be afraid than to be frightened: the key is to have the appropriate average and personally consulted prior to introduction.Related articles in this topic:
  • Addition table
  • Breastfeeding and Nutritionist Baby: What's Another Nutrition?
  • Superfood in Nutrition - What can you give and how much weight is at the age of seven?

Infant and child CPR classes

Infant and child CPR classes

It's best to take a CPR course from a certified instructor, who will teach you hands-on techniques for handling a life-threatening emergency. Contact the American Red Cross for classes near you, or order a training kit or books, or take an online class if you're unable to attend in person.

What's the best way to learn infant and child CPR?

The best way to learn how to administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is to take a class taught by a certified instructor. Hospitals, community centers, and local chapters of the American Red Cross and American Heart Association offer CPR classes.

Instructors use a child-size mannequin to demonstrate how to perform every aspect of the technique, from how far back to tilt the head to how hard to strike a child's back if he's choking.

It's better to attend a class in person than to try learning from a book or website (although it's useful to have those materials available to refresh your memory). Practicing each step of CPR with an experienced instructor helps you learn proper technique and remember what you've learned, so you'll feel prepared in the event of an emergency.

To find a class in your area, visit the Red Cross website or call (800) RED-CROSS or (800) 733-2767.

What happens during a CPR class?

In a CPR class, you'll learn:

  • Techniques for handling a life-threatening emergency – if a child is choking or isn't moving or breathing because of a fall or a near drowning, for example. The techniques are different for babies and older children, so it's important to learn both.
  • Accident prevention and childproofing measures.

In a pediatric first aid/CPR/AED course, participants learn how to:

  • Prevent, recognize and respond to cardiac and breathing emergencies
  • Use an automatic external defibrillator (AED)
  • Treat wounds and burns
  • Care for sudden illnesses in infants and children under age 12.

Courses (for either CPR or First Aid/CPR/AED) usually last from two to five hours total.

What if I can't go to a class?

For those who can't attend a CPR course, the American Heart Association offers an Adult & Child CPR Anytime Training Kit. It contains a small inflatable mannequin, a DVD, and a booklet of CPR instructions that can be used individually or to teach your family or a group. (Learning the technique with the kit won't certify you in CPR, however.)

The Red Cross offers:

  • An online Adult, Child and Baby First Aid/CPR/AED course. The course features simulation in a virtual setting and takes approximately 2 hours and 45 minutes to complete.
  • An online store of books and DVDs on emergency preparedness. You can find resources on how to prevent, recognize, and treat cardiac, breathing, and first aid emergencies, what emergency supplies to keep on hand, and how to develop a disaster plan.
  • A free first aid app that you can download from the American Red Cross website, the app store on your device, or by texting "GETFIRST" to 90999. The app covers common first aid emergencies and includes videos, interactive quizzes, and step-by-step instructions.

More resources

While a good course is the ideal way to learn CPR, it can also help to read up on techniques. See our illustrated guides to first aid for choking and CPR for babies and children 12 months or older.

Learn more:

  • First-aid checklist
  • Childproofing around the house
  • Choking hazards for children
  • Water safety

CPR - Infant



Moms need to eat fish


A coalition of specialists announces that pregnant and lactating women should eat at least 336 grams of fish or seafood a week to ensure optimal development of their children, the Washington Post Company reports.
These recommendations raise controversial issues because a contradiction arises between nutrients that help brain development and mercury exposure of many marine species that is toxic to nerve tissue.
It seems that fish consumed during pregnancy has never been associated with mercury toxicity in the fetus or newborn. On the contrary, the mother and the child had only to gain.
Fish and other seafood are a major source of omega-3 fatty acids. They contain key nutrients for the brain and nervous system in the developing fetus, infants and young children.
Earlier this year, a team of US and British researchers reported that all children of women who ate smaller amounts of fish or high seafood during pregnancy had lower IQs and lower scores on academic tests and social problems. behavior in the first part of life.
Other studies show that low consumption of fish can increase the risk of preterm birth or low birth weight.
The risk of depression
Mothers who do not consume enough over the risk of depression during pregnancy and after birth. Postpartum depression affects one in 10 mothers.
Women who do not want to consume fish, however, can use fish oil supplements.
Earlier this year, the European Commission recommended pregnant or breastfeeding women to consume 200 milligrams a day.
Alina Sica
Editor
October 4, 2007


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